2011 Active Transport and Cell Communication

2011 Active Transport and Cell Communication - C - 16Dr....

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Unformatted text preview: C - 16Dr. Kennon M. Garrett ACTIVE SOLUTE TRANSPORT & CELL COMMUNICATIONReading: Widmaier et al., Vanders Human Physiology, 12th ed. pp. 66-69, 102-113, 119-126.Behavioral Objectives 1. List the characteristics of carrier proteins. 2.List characteristics of primary active transport and secondary active transport. 3. List examples of primary and secondary active transport systems. 4. Describe the relationship between the primary and secondary active transport systems. 5. Define osmolarity and tonicity and understand the difference between the two. 6. Calculate the osmolarity and tonicity of a solution. 7. Define hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions. 8. Determine which direction water will flow if given the composition of the intracellular and extracellular solutions. 9. Describe characteristics of excocytosis, endocytosis and pinocytosis 10. Describe the asymmetric solute transport across epithelial cells 11. List the characteristics of a receptor. 12. Describe properties of intracellular and plasma membrane receptors. 13. List type of ligands for intracellular and plasma membrane receptors. 14. Define up regulation and down regulation of receptors and determine when these events occur. I. Carrier proteins(Fig. 4-8) Carrier proteins are used for facilitated diffusion and active transport systems. C - 17Characteristics of carrier proteins Specificity(Fig. 3-26) carrier proteins transport specific solutes since the binding site on the carrier protein only recognizes molecules with a certain structure. Competition(Fig. 3-28) molecules with similar structures may compete with each other for the binding site on the carrier protein C - 18Saturation (Fig. 3-30, 4-9) the transport of solutes increases with increasing solute concentration. The transport of the solutes is maximal when all of the carrier molecules are saturated with solutes. The maximal transport is called the Tm.Simple diffusion of solutes across the membrane is linear and does not saturate with increasing concentrations of solute. II. Active transportA. Characteristics 1. Transport againstconcentration gradient (Fig. 4-10) 2. Energy dependent C - 19B. Primary active transport These transporter systems primarily transport ions across the membrane. They are found in plasma membranes and in membranes of various organelles. 1. Use ATP as energy source These transporters are called ATPases(also called "pumps") because ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP + Pi by the transporter during the process of transporting the solute across the membrane. 2. Na+/K+-ATPase - (Fig. 4-11 & 12) - located in the plasma membrane. Transports 3 Na+out of the cell and 2 K+into the cell for every ATP hydrolyzed.This ATPase is responsible for maintaining intracellular Na+and K+concentrations C - 20Ca++ [Ca] = 100 nM Ca++ High ATP ADP + ATP ADP + Organelle [Ca] = 1 mM 3. Ca2+-ATPase located on plasma membrane, in sarcoplasmic reticulum (in skeletal and heart muscle cells), endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. skeletal and heart muscle cells), endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria....
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2011 Active Transport and Cell Communication - C - 16Dr....

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