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2011 Energy Balance and Response to Stress

2011 Energy Balance and Response to Stress - Dr Kennon M...

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E-59 Dr. Kennon M. Garrett ENERGY BALANCE AND RESPONSE TO STRESS Reading: Vander et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed. pp. 569-571, 332-339. Behavioral Objectives 1. List the actions of thyroid hormone. 2. List steps involved in the synthesis and release of thyroid hormone. 3. Describe the cellular mechanism of thyroid hormone. 4. Describe the regulation of thyroid hormone. 5. List symptoms of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease) and understand the causes of the diseases. 6. Describe the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on negative feedback systems regulating thyroid hormone release. 7. List steps in stressed-induced cortisol release. 8. List other chemicals that cause cortisol release. 9. List metabolic effects of cortisol for both basal levels and increased levels during stress. 10. List metabolic effects of the stress-induced stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. 11. List mechanisms for hypercortisolism (Cushing’s disease) and hypocortisolism (Addison’s disease) and know the effects of these diseases on the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis. I. Energy Balance The amount energy taken into a body is equal to the amount of energy expended and the amount of energy stored as fat, glycogen or protein. Energy input = energy output + energy stored The energy output is equal to the work produced plus heat or: Energy output = work + heat In a physiological system, total work consists of two components 1) external work such as the movement of skeletal muscles to move objects and 2) internal work which includes the contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle, transport of solutes and various other cellular processes that require energy. Thus, Total energy output = external work + internal work + heat The heat expended is used to maintain body temperature.
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