2011 Energy Balance and Response to Stress

2011 Energy Balance and Response to Stress - Dr. Kennon M....

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E-59 Dr. Kennon M. Garrett ENERGY BALANCE AND RESPONSE TO STRESS Reading: Vander et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed. pp. 569-571, 332-339. Behavioral Objectives 1. List the actions of thyroid hormone. 2. List steps involved in the synthesis and release of thyroid hormone. 3. Describe the cellular mechanism of thyroid hormone. 4. Describe the regulation of thyroid hormone. 5. List symptoms of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease) and understand the causes of the diseases. 6. Describe the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on negative feedback systems regulating thyroid hormone release. 7. List steps in stressed-induced cortisol release. 8. List other chemicals that cause cortisol release. 9. List metabolic effects of cortisol for both basal levels and increased levels during stress. 10. List metabolic effects of the stress-induced stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. 11. List mechanisms for hypercortisolism (Cushing’s disease) and hypocortisolism (Addison’s disease) and know the effects of these diseases on the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis. I. Energy Balance The amount energy taken into a body is equal to the amount of energy expended and the amount of energy stored as fat, glycogen or protein. Energy input = energy output + energy stored The energy output is equal to the work produced plus heat or: Energy output = work + heat In a physiological system, total work consists of two components 1) external work such as the movement of skeletal muscles to move objects and 2) internal work which includes the contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle, transport of solutes and various other cellular processes that require energy. Thus, Total energy output = external work + internal work + heat The heat expended is used to maintain body temperature.
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E-60 II. Metabolic rate The total energy output by the body per time is the metabolic rate . A. Factors affecting metabolic rate (Table 16-7) 1. Physical activity affects both external work and internal work. Skeletal muscles and internal organs such as the heart and smooth muscle will have to use energy during physical activity. 2. Body surface area (height, weight) 3. Body composition – lean muscle has a higher energy consumption than fat 4. Diet – digestion of food produces heat (food thermogenesis) 5. Gender – men have a higher metabolic rate than women 6. Age – metabolic rate decreases with age 7. Hormones – thyroid hormone, catecholamines, growth hormone 8. Environmental temperature – a hot or cold environment can increase metabolism to activate systems to either remove or retain heat 9. Genetics
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E-61 B. Metabolic rate measurements Units for metabolic rate kilocalories (kcals or Calorie), 1 calorie = amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram water 1º C at 15º C, 1 kcal (Calorie) = amount of heat needed to raise 1 kg water 1º C at 15º C.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course PSYO 5016 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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2011 Energy Balance and Response to Stress - Dr. Kennon M....

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