2011 Female Reproductive Physiology

2011 Female Reproductive Physiology - Dr Kennon Garrett...

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E-105 Dr. Kennon Garrett FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY Reading: Vander et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed. pp. 603-614. Behavioral Objectives 1. List the anatomical structures of the female reproductive system and list their functions. 2. List steps in oogenesis and follicular development. 3. Describe the changes in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and describe how the hormone levels are regulated. 4. List the effects of hormones on follicular development. 5. List the effects of hormones on the uterus during the menstrual cycle. 6. List the changes in the reproductive system hat occur during puberty and menopause. I. Introduction A. Cyclical patterns B. Functional components in female reproductive system 1. Ovaries 2. Uterus 3. Hypothalamus-anterior pituitary II. Anatomy Overview (Fig. 17-14) A. Ovaries B. Fallopian tubes C. Uterus 1. Myometrium 2. Endometrium D. Cervix E. Vagina
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III. Ovarian function A. Oogenesis (Fig. 17-16) 1. Oogonia undergo mitotic division in female fetus from 6 to 24 weeks of gestation. 2. Oogonia differentiate into primary oocytes and begin first meiotic division starting at 9 weeks of gestation. Primary oocytes do not undergo cell division, and all primary oocytes enter state of meiotic arrest by sixth month of gestation. At birth there are 2 to 4 million eggs present in the ovaries. 3. At puberty meiotic activity begins again. Selected oocytes will develop and undergo first meiotic division to generate the secondary oocyte just before ovulation. Both oocytes contain 23 chromosomes. Each chromosome has previously replicated into sister chromatids in the fetus. Of the two daughter oocytes, only one contains all of the cytoplasm. The other oocyte contains half of the chromosomes and is called the polar body . The polar body is not functional. 4. At fertilization in the fallopian tube the oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division and again a polar body with half of the oocyte DNA is extruded by the cell and disintegrates. Thus, the resulting cell, called the ovum , contains a single
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2011 Female Reproductive Physiology - Dr Kennon Garrett...

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