2011 Regulation of Metabolism

2011 Regulation of Metabolism - Dr. Kennon M. Garrett...

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E-36 Dr. Kennon M. Garrett REGULATION OF METABOLISM Reading: Vander et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed. pp. 560-567. Behavioral Objectives 1. List effects of insulin on glucose, protein and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. 2. Describe the mechanism by which glucose levels regulate insulin secretion. 3. Describe how amino acids, GI peptides, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems regulate insulin secretion. 4. List the effects of glucagon on metabolism and know the target organ. 5. Describe the regulation of glucagon release. 6. List the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on metabolism. 7. Know the effects of normal levels of cortisol on metabolism. 8. Describe the metabolic events that occur during fasting and the effects of regulatory hormones. 9. Know mechanisms and effects of hypoglycemia. 10. Know mechanisms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. 11. List symptoms of Type 1 diabetes mellitus and know their mechanisms. 12. List symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. 13. List effects of chronic elevated glucose levels. I. Introduction Questions: What controls the anabolic events during the absorptive state and the catabolic events in the post- absorptive state? What induces glucose utilization during the absorptive state and fat utilization during the post-absorptive state? What controls the transition from the absorptive to the post-absorptive states? Normal fasting glucose levels – 70-110 mg/dl Minimal glucose levels required by brain – 40 mg/dl Tm of renal proximal tubules for glucose – 180 mg/dl
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E-37 II. Insulin The most important hormone involved in the control of plasma glucose concentrations. A. Plasma levels of insulin 1. Elevated in absorptive state 2. Low in post-absorptive state B. Pancreas - insulin is synthesized and secreted from β -cells in Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Panoramic view of the Pancreas Panoramic view of the Pancreas Islets of Langerhans contain α cells (glucagon), β cells (insulin), δ cells (somatostatin). β Cells make up 60-80% of cells in Islets. Islets of Langerhan s
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E-38 C. Synthesis First pass metabolism – 60% of insulin released is metabolized when it passes through the liver. Insulin half-life is 5-6 minutes. C-chain (C-peptide, connecting peptide) is released with insulin and slowly metabolized (half-life is 30 min.). Since C-chain has a longer half-life than insulin, C-chain is measured in the blood as an indicator of insulin secretion. D. Metabolic effects of insulin 1. Target tissue - primarily liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (Fig. 16-7) signal C-chain B-chain A-chain Insulin Synthesis B-chain A-chain C-chain s s s s s s C-chain B-chain A-chain s s s s s s + Insulin Insulin signal B-chain C-chain A-chain Preproinsulin Proinsulin
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E-39 2. Activities (Fig. 16-5, Fig. 16-6) a. Glucose metabolism i. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue (Fig. 16-6) insulin causes fusion of vesicles with glucose facilitated transporter (Glut 4) to the plasma membrane ii. Insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis ( liver and skeletal muscle )
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E-40 iii.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course PSYO 5016 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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2011 Regulation of Metabolism - Dr. Kennon M. Garrett...

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