Digestive Disorders and Gas

Digestive Disorders and Gas - Dr. Kennon M. Garrett GI-63...

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Unformatted text preview: Dr. Kennon M. Garrett GI-63 DIGESTIVE DISORDERS AND GAS Learning Objectives 1. Describe the mechanism of the three types of diarrhea. 2. Describe the causes and symptoms of constipation. 3. Describe the three causes of ulcers. 4. Describe the sources of gas. Dr. Kennon M. Garrett GI-64 I. Diarrhea A. Introduction Diarrhea refers to the frequent passage of soft unformed watery stools. It is sometimes clinically defined as > 250 g of feces/day. Diarrhea results when the volume of fluid delivered to small intestine and colon exceed their ability to absorb that fluid. This may be due to an increase in the volume of fluid delivered and/or to a decrease in absorptive capacity. B. Osmotic diarrhea Osmotic diarrheas are diarrheas caused by retention of ingested solute in the lumen of the small intestine and colon. Retention of solute in the small intestine will require additional water retention to maintain isotonicity. The volume of fluid delivered to the colon may exceed its absorptive capacity thereby causing an osmotic diarrhea. Osmotic diarrheas can be caused by: 1) ingestion of solutes that are inherently difficult to absorb (e.g. Mg salts, sorbitol), 2) primary malabsorptions (e.g. loss of solute transporter, uncommon) and 3) malabsorption secondary to maldigestion. A relatively common cause of osmotic diarrhea is lactose intolerance (a malabsorption secondary to maldigestion). Lactose induced diarrhea occurs when an individual, who has lost the brush border enzyme lactase, ingests dairy products. The milk sugar lactose cannot be digested and therefore cannot be absorbed resulting in an osmotic diarrhea. Osmotic diarrheas are usually large volume diarrheas (> 1000 ml/day) that abate when fasting. Dr. Kennon M. Garrett GI-65 C. Secretory diarrhea Secretory diarrheas are diarrheas resulting from 1) intestinal and/or colonic secretion of electrolytes into the lumen of the GI tract. This increases the osmolarity of the chyme causing 2) concomitant secretion of water. concomitant secretion of water....
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Digestive Disorders and Gas - Dr. Kennon M. Garrett GI-63...

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