BIOL211#19 - Chapter 24 Genes in Populations Population...

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1 Chapter 24 Population Genetics Genes in Populations Population – A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring – Populations are dynamic units that change from one generation to the next Gene pool – All of the alleles for every gene in a given population – Consists of all the alleles for all the loci in all individuals of the population p and q represent allele frequencies Two fundamental calculations are central to population genetics – Allele frequency – Genotype frequency Allele frequency Allele frequency Number of copies of a specific allele in a population Total number of all alleles for that gene in a population = Genotype frequency Genotype frequency Number of individuals with a particular genotype in a population Total number of individuals in a population =
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2 • Start with a population of 100 flowers – Two alleles for flower color: C R and C W – 49 plants have red flowers: ( C R C R ) – 42 plants have pink flowers: ( C R C W ) – 9 plants have white flowers: ( C W C W ) – All plants are diploid: 200 total alleles – Allele frequency of C R C R C R = 49 x 2 = 98 alleles C R C W = 42 x 1 = 42 alleles • 98 + 42 = 140 total C R alleles p = 140 200 = 0.7 = 70% – Allele frequency of C W • 200 – 140 = 60 total C W alleles q = 60 200 = 0.3 = 30% • Start with a population of 100 flowers – Two alleles for flower color: C R and C W – 49 plants have red flowers: ( C R C R ) – 42 plants have pink flowers: ( C R C W ) – 9 plants have white flowers: ( C W C W ) – All plants are diploid: 200 total alleles – Genotype frequency of C R C R C R C R = 49 100 = 0.49 = 49% – Genotype frequency of C R C W C R C W = 42 100 = 0.42 = 42% – Genotype frequency of C W C W C W C W = 9 100 = 0.09 = 9% The Hardy-Weinberg equation – Describes a population that is not evolving – States that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work – Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium The Hardy-Weinberg equation p 2 + 2
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course BIOL 211 taught by Professor Boury during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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BIOL211#19 - Chapter 24 Genes in Populations Population...

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