BIOL211#21and#22

BIOL211#21and#22 - Chapter 54 Ecology is the study of...

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1 Chapter 54 Ecology and Biomes Ecology is the study of interactions among and between organisms and their environments Interactions occur at a hierarchy of scales, from organismal to global Biotic interactions – Interactions among organisms Abiotic interactions – Interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment The Scale of Ecology Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Organismal ecology – Studies how an organism’s physiology (physiological ecology), and behavior (behavioral ecology) meet the challenges of its environment Humpback Whale Population ecology – Studies the factors that affect population size and how and why it changes over time – Includes the study of species interactions Deer Mice
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2 Population ecology – Introduced or exotic species Include organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution Can spread aggressively and crowd out native organisms (invasive species) Kudzu Kudzu Kudzu Kudzu Distribution Community ecology – Studies how populations interact and form functional communities Rain Forest
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3 Population vs . community – A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area – A community consists of a group of populations of different species living in an area Ecosystem ecology – Studies energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment Temperate Grassland Ecological Methods Ecology is an enormously complex area of biology Historically an observational science Hercules Beetles Modern ecology has also become a rigorous experimental science – Test hypotheses through field experiments – Innovators in the area of experimental design – Interpretation of results often depends on a broad knowledge of biology
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BIOL211#21and#22 - Chapter 54 Ecology is the study of...

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