Instructor’s Outline/Notes – Chapter 14: Managing Change – Newstrom 14General Discussion of Change (p 376+) change is any alteration occurring at work or in the work environment that affects the ways in which employees must act.The whole organization is affected by change in any part of it. They may be planned or unplanned. Hawthorne Studies (p 377+) the hawthorde studies was study that increased lighting to increase productivity. Than lighting decreased to prove the point and still productivity increased. It was not until lighting decreased to .o6 foot candle lighting did it decrease.Hawthorne Effect (p 378+) Means that the mere observation of a group tends to change the group. When people are observed or believe that someone cares about them they act differently. These changes usually are unintended and not even recognized by the members themselves the Hawthorne effect contaminates the research design but normally the consequences of it can Not be prevented Resistance to Change (p 381+) resistance to change consists of any employee behaviors designed to discredit display delay or prevent the implementation of work change period employees resist change because it threatens their need for security social interaction status competence or self esteem other causes are organizational cultures that overvalue criticism of new ideas employees who mouth support in public but undercut changes behind the scenes indecisive managers who suffer from analysis paralysis an emphasis on flashy proposals in a bunker mentality Reasons for Resistance (p 382) employees may resist change for three broad reasons. First they
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