Sept28 - 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology Previously on Introduction to Sociology. The Conflict model of Karl Marx: Unequal distribution of material wealth leads to social struggle -conflict between classes- and provides motivation for historical development and change Social conflict is especially pervasive in capitalism because capitalism turns everything into a commodity, i.e., everything acquires a monetary value Critiques: Inadequate conceptualization of class Utopian Four Classical Perspectives on Society: 3. FUNCTIONALISM 2 SOCIOLOGICAL EXEMPLARY GUIDING UNIT OF MODEL THEORIST IMAGE ANALYSIS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1) RATIONAL-CHOICE ADAM SMITH CLOCK INDIVIDUAL 2) CONFLICT THEORY KARL MARX FIGHT CLASS 3) FUNCTIONALISM E. DURKHEIM BODY SOCIETY 4) SYMBOLIC G. H. MEAD CHAT THE DYAD INTERACTIONISM SOCIOLOGICAL EXEMPLARY GUIDING UNIT OF MODEL THEORIST IMAGE ANALYSIS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 3) FUNCTIONALISM E. DURKHEIM BODY SOCIETY Functionalism The analysis of structural and cultural phenomena in terms of the functions they perform in a social system. Macrosociological perspective. The development of functionalism was based on the model of the organic system found in the biological sciences. Society is conceived of as a system of interrelated parts in which no part can be understood in isolation from the whole. Society as an organism, with needs of its own and a drive to survive A change in any part is seen as leading to a certain degree of imbalance, which in turn results in changes in other parts of the system and to some extent to a reorganization of the system as a whole. 3 Think of an airport as an example of the interrelatedness expressed within the functionalism framework. Airport Components: Pilots Maintenance crews Air traffic controllers Baggage handlers Ticketing and reservation personnel What could cause an imbalance of the airport system? Inclement weather Malfunctioning radar control system High volume of passengers during the holidays Strike of some employees Three Elements of Functionalism The general interrelatedness, or interdependence, of the systems parts The existence of a normal state of affairs, or state of equilibrium, comparable to the normal or healthy state of an organism The way that all the parts of the system reorganize to bring things back to normal 4 Using the airport example, how will equilibrium be restored? Personnel will work harder Overtime will be set up Additional staff will be hired Additional flights will be scheduled (in case of bad weather) In analyzing how social systems maintain and restore equilibrium, functionalists tend to use shared values or generally accepted standards of desirability as a central concept....
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Clarke during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Sept28 - 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology...

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