Nov9 - 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology Previously...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology Previously on Introduction to Sociology. Global inequality begs the following questions: Why has social change been uneven between nations? Why has the technological modernization of the West been unevenly adopted by other nations? Can all societies be modernized? Theories of Modernization: From command economies to the free market The Protestant Ethic The state theory of modernization Dependency Theory World Systems Theory SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: Gender Inequality 2 Common sense definitions Gender : the meaning we attribute to being male or female. It applies to both men and women. Gender is what it means to be masculine or feminine in a given culture at a given point in time. Sex : the biological basis of gender. We assume that sex has only two categories: male and female. We learn in school that sex is caused or created by chromosomes, XX for females and XY for males. The two sexes are assumed to be Universal (found in all cultures throughout history) Exhaustive (theres no third sex) Mutually exclusive (a person cant be both) Social Construction of Gender What does this mean? Changes over time and space Historical time and over the life course Varies among cultures Gender varies by groups and subculturesage, race, ethnicity Specific to situations Qualitative variation (above)kind, type Quantitative variationmore or less of an effect, influence Gender is an organizing principle of social life. It structures institutions, it shapes how we act, and it is an attribute or characteristic of individuals. Examples?? In every situation, every encounter, gender matters. 3 Intersectionality Gender varies by groups and subcultures age, race, ethnicity Social Construction of Sex Sex has no meaning without gender Recent scholarship has shown us that biological sex has no meaning apart from the social and cultural construction of gender....
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Clarke during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Nov9 - 1 SOCIOLOGY 101 Introduction to Sociology Previously...

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