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07 Geological Time - Relative Time(older/younger Principles...

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Relative Time (older/younger) Principles for Determining Relative Time (age) 1. Principle of Uniformitarianism - geological process operating today also operated in the past Mudcracks today Mudcracks in 400 m.y. old siltstone 12.4a,b
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2. Principle of superposition: - a sedimentary stratum is always deposited on top of another 12.4c - top layer - youngest - bottom layer - oldest
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3. Principle of original horizontality - sediments are deposited on horizontal planes (surfaces) Silt & sand layers on a tidal flat (Mont St. Michel, France) 12.4d Grand canyon 12.10a
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4. Principle of original continuity - sediments accumulate in continuous layers - horizontal layers later cut by river erosion - “correlation”: relating similar strata from different locations
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5. Principle of cross-cutting relations - igneous rocks are younger than the rocks they cut 12.4h 10_1.exe - faults are younger than the rocks they cut
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6. Principle of Inclusions 12.4i - inclusions are always older than the enclosing rock shale limestone sill sandstone flow
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7. Principle of baked (metamorphic) contacts 12.4j - rocks that are baked must be older than the metamorphic rocks & pluton
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8.
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