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03 IgnRx - Important Rock-Forming Minerals Silicates...

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Important Rock-Forming Minerals Silicates: Olivine - (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 high temperature silicate, single tetrahedron, no cleavage (forsterite, fayalite) Pyroxene - (Fe,Mg)SiO 3 two directions of cleavage that meet at ~90 degrees; single chain silicate (augite) Amphibole Group - (Ca 2 Mg 5 )Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 Double chain silicate; cleavage at 60 and 120 degrees (hornblende) Micas – Muscovite: KAl 2 (AlSi 3 )O 10 (OH) 2 Biotite: K (Mg, Fe) 3 (Al, Fe)Si 3 O 10 (OH) 2 Sheet silicates—planar cleavage Feldspar - the most common mineral group; two planes of cleavage that meet at 90 degrees; two different structures exist- orthoclase feldspar- KAlSi 3 O 8 ; plagioclase feldspar- NaAlSi 3 O 8 albite CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 anorthite Quartz - SiO 2 three dimensional framework is developed through the complete sharing of oxygen by the adjacent silicon; strong bonds - hard mineral, no cleavage Nonsilicates: carbonate minerals calcite - CaCO 3 evaporites halite – NaCl gypsum – CaSO 4 .
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