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12 Earth Structure - Earth Structure review(Interlude C C.1...

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Earth Structure (& review) (Interlude C) C.1 Structure (rock distribution) is determined from seismic waves Radius = 6370 kilometers = 4000 miles
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Properties of Seismic Waves 1. Velocity of P & S waves increase with density. - density (mass/volume; grams/cm 3 ) rock type pressure temperature C.3 2. V of P waves decrease in liquids. 3. P waves travel through solids & liquids S waves travel through solids, but not liquids 4. P waves travel faster than S waves
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C.2 Seismic rays are perpendicular to wave fronts Seismic rays are reflected & refracted at a “discontinuity” - boundary separating rocks with different densities (velocities). C.5
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Seismic Reflection Profiling C.12
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The Moho (Mohorovicic) Discontinuity crust-mantle boundary V P (granite) = 6 km/sec - density = 2.7 gm/cc V p (peridotite) = 8 km/sec - density = 3.3 gm/cc
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Continental Crust 2.5 Average rock = granite 11.27 Isostasy: buoyant continents floating on dense mantle Average thickness = 40 km (25 miles: 1 km = 5/8 mile) Maximum thickness = 65 km below active mountains (roots) - Himalayas
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1. Granitic Rocks
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