11 Earthquakes

11 Earthquakes - R L Seismograph: measures earthquake...

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Earthquakes Ch 10
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Stress - differential pressure Strain - change in shape Elastic strain: returns to original shape when stress is released Deformation: does not return to original shape … - breaks or flows 10.8 10.7
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lle 10.3 Fault: fracture in Earth Displacement: amount of slip Focus: point of rupture on fault (hypocenter) Epicenter: point on surface above focus Earthquake: seismic (shock) waves - ground movement 10.1 10_1.exe
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p. 277
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Tsunami (large wave triggered by an earthquake) (10.33)
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P. 268 Fault trace (line) = intersection of fault with surface 10.3, 10.6, 11.14 Fault scarp: slip on the surface
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Seismic Waves 1. P waves (primary; compressional body waves) 10.13 a,b
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2. S waves (secondary; shear body waves) 10_2.exe 10.13 c,d
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3. R waves (Rayleigh; surface waves) 4. Love waves (surface waves) 10.26 10.13 e,f
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Unformatted text preview: R L Seismograph: measures earthquake arrival time & magnitude 10.14 10_3.exe Seismograph (10.15) 10.17 Epicenter Location (10.18) Triangulation 10.22 Map of Earthquake Epicenters (last 10 years)- define lithospheric plate boundaries San Andreas Fault (4.17) North American Plate Pacific Plate Richter Scale (logarithmic) (0 to 9) 1 increase: - 10 larger in amplitude- 33 larger in energy Measuring Earthquake Magnitude (10.20) Amplitude of largest wave- 100 km from epicenter 10.21 See table 10.4 Earthquake Prediction (10.36b) Number of deaths world wide: ~ 1,000,000/century Property loss world wide: ~ $ 1 billion/week Probability of a 6-9 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault (10.36b). Earthquake prediction is difficult (p. 301 - 304)...
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11 Earthquakes - R L Seismograph: measures earthquake...

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