Facts: In 2000, a school bus driver reported to Oakmont High School principal, Stuart Nelson that fresh cuts were made on the seats of her bus. Concerned with the safety of students that a knife or other cutting weapon was on school grounds, Nelson ordered all male students in ninth through twelfth grade be searched. Two male administrators conducted this search. The students were told to remove their jackets, shoes, and socks, and empty their pockets and put the items on a table. They were searched with a metal detector for other concealed items; if the alarm sounded, they were patted down. Since many blue jeans had metal brads, the alarm was set off quite often. If they felt an item, they removed it. Andy Synder, a ninth grade student at the time, was found to have a used book of matches, a match box, and a cigarette package. A “white substance” was found inside the match box, and a test revealed that is was crack cocaine. Synder was later expelled from school. He then filed a lawsuit stating that his constitutional rights were
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