Biological Bases

Biological Bases - Copyright, Harrison 2009 BIOLOGICAL...

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Copyright, Harrison 2009 1 1 BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR “NEUROSCIENCE” 2 THE NEURONAL DOCTRINE Ramon y Cajal •N EURON BASIC UNIT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 100 + BILLION – HUMAN BRAIN LENGTH: WHALE: UP TO 30 FEET LONG HUMAN: 1.5 FEET 3 A Motor Neuron From Myers, 1992
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Copyright, Harrison 2009 2 4 The Neuronal Doctrine Neuron = Basic Unit of the Nervous System Alzheimer’s A to D All or None 5 Photograph of Neuron (Simon & Schuster,1989) 6 Neuron & Glial Cells Electron Microscope Magnified 20,000 Times Seymour Simon, 1997
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Copyright, Harrison 2009 3 7 Synaptic Buttons Electron Microscope Seymour Simon, 1997 8 HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE? • I. GRADED POTENTIALS 1. EXCITATORY (+) = EPSP DEPOLARIZE CELL 2. INHIBITORY (-) = IPSP HYPERPOLARIZE CELL • II. ACTION POTENTIALS “ALL OR NONE” 9 AXON MEMBRANE
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Copyright, Harrison 2009 4 10 Resting Potential = about -70mV -70 11 Resting Potential; Threshold; Graded Potentials; & Action Potential 12 How Does Communication Cross the Synapse? Otto Loewi Discovers “Vagustuf” Goubers or Sparks?
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Copyright, Harrison 2009 5 13 NEUROTRANSMITTERS • AN “ON – OFF SYSTEM” ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) = “ON” ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (AChE) = “OFF” 14 HOW DRUGS WORK • MAY ALTER: STORAGE RELEASE REUPTAKE BLOCK RECEPTOR SITE STIMULATE RECEPTOR SITE OTHER MECHANISMS 15 CHOLINERGIC DRUGS AND TOXINS • CURARE BLOCKS ACh RECEPTORS ON MUSCLE •S C O P O L AM I N E BLOCKS ACh RECEPTORS ON BRAIN •A T R O P I N E BLOCKS ACh RECEPTORS ON GLANDS • BOTULISM BLOCKS ACh RELEASE • NERVE GAS (DFP) BLOCKS ACHE
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Copyright, Harrison 2009 6 16 OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTERS • DOPAMINE (DA) • NOREPINEPHRINE (NE) •SERATON IN • ENDORPHINS OR NEUROPEPTIDES 17 CRAWFORD LONG
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Biological Bases - Copyright, Harrison 2009 BIOLOGICAL...

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