Yes, I would argue that the Mediterranean coast, including French ruled territories
like Algeria and Tunisia as well as the Italy ruled state of Libya are more
“European” than they are “African”. This is due to the fact that French colonizers
ruled through a process called assimilation and their greatest hope was to make all
Africans Frenchmen. Although Italy did not rule through assimilation and
association, it did form dictatorships in its colonies.
Geographic features of the Mahgreb: Fertile plain stretching from Morocco to
Egypt (Mediterranean Coast). Modern states: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya,
Sahara desert found in: Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Western
Africa, Mali, Niger, Chad, Libya, Sudan
Geographic features of Sahel: strip of grasslands on the southern edge of the
Sahara that is rapidly disappearing due to desertification. Sahel is one of the more
conflict-prone areas- represents geographic, religious, and ethnic divisions (e.g.
could not be traversed by armies due to great expanses of desert)
Sahara is difficult to cross…European powers bypassed the Sahara by sailing
1) the great expanses of the desert could be traversed by traders, but not by armies
or large migrations 2) south of the Sahel, malaria and sleeping sickness killed
Arabs, horses, and camels 3) Islam was adopted by nomads and small desert
groups but was resisted in densely-populated forest governments
Bantu migration from modern Cameroon drove other groups out of the most
habitable areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
Hottentots, Khoi-san and Bushmen were driven into dry southwest corner of
Major Bantu civilizations included the Kongo (Coastal Congo, Angola), Lunda
(Central Congo) and Buganda (Uganda)
10. Arabs established trading posts and towns along Africa’s east coast long before
Europeans began slave trade on west.
11. Traders dealt with the Swahili speakers on the coast