Anatomy Lab Exam II notes - Skeletal System Notes for Exam...

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Skeletal System Notes for Exam II 1/7 I. Overview and long bone anatomy (pages111-116) A. Figure 9.1—pg 112 1. Know the human skeleton word for word, this will be similar to the naked man. Remember proper spelling and formal names, nothing in parenthesis!! 2. Notes on the reading: a. In embryos the skeleton is predominantly composed of ______________ but in the adult most of this is replaced by bone. b. The skeleton is made up of bones that are connected at _____, or _________. B. Figure 9.3—pg 115 1. Know all of this figure. You will be responsible for labeling the different sections, especially the cross section of the diaphysis ;) 2. Notes on the reading: a. Long bones are generally much longer than they are wide and consists of a shaft with heads at either end. Long bones are made up of predominantly compact bone. Also know short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sutural bones. b. Diaphysis-shaft (main section of bone) c. Periosteum-fibrous membrane covering i. perforating fibers from the periosteum penetrate the bones d. osteoblasts are found on the inner surface of the periosteum e. epiphysis- the end of the long bone which is mostly spongy bone f. articular cartilage- covers the epiphyseal suface and is composed of hyaline cartilage (smooth and glassy) providing a smooth friction-free surface. g. epiphyseal plate (growth plate) thin line of hyaline cartilage. Once growing is complete the area is called the epiphyseal line. h. in adult mammals the medullary cavity is essentially a storage region for adipose tissue or yellow marrow. In infants this area is for blood cell formation and so red marrow is found in the cavity. In adults red marrow is only in the interior of the epipyhses. i. endosteum- lining of the shaft, covers trabeculae of spongy bones, and lines the canals of compact bone. Contains osteoblasts and osteoclast . C. Table 9.1—pg 116 1. I can not stress this enough! If you know the definitions of these bone marking then this will help you out tremendously on the test! 2. Notes on reading: a. bone markings reveal where bones form joints with other bones, where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached, and where blood vessels and nerves passed. i. Two categories: Projections or processes - grow out from the bones and serve as a site for muscle attachment or help form joints. Depressions or cavities – indentations or openings that often serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels. D. The skeletal system is composed of: 1. bones 2. Teeth 3. ligaments-broad bands of connective tissue that connect bone to bone 4. tendons- tubular chord-like bands of connective tissue that connect muscle to bone 5. cartilages
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Skeletal System Notes for Exam II 2/7 6. articulation E. There are approximately 270 bones in the fetus/infant skeleton and only 206 named bones in the adult skeleton. Why is this? II. Axial Skeleton—pg 123-138
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Anatomy Lab Exam II notes - Skeletal System Notes for Exam...

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