chapter12 - Chapter12 Education ChapterOutline...

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Chapter 12 Education
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Chapter Outline The Development and Structure        of  Education The Functionalist Perspective The Conflict Perspective Symbolic Interactionism Higher Education
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Development  of Education The purpose of education is the transmission of  knowledge. Early emphasis in American schools was on  “civilizing” the young. After the turn of the 20th century, the emphasis  shifted to education for jobs. Early schools were modeled after businesses  and have become increasingly more  bureaucratic.
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Objectives of Early Schools To create a literate, active, and informed  public. Teaching democratic values and  marketable skills became popular  between 1850 and 1910. In the 19 th  century, public schooling was  designed to be a mechanism of social  control.
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Bureaucracy in Education Early school administration was based on the  factory model of education. Children were to be educated in much the same  way as cars were mass-produced. Specialization, rules and procedures, and  impersonality as characteristics of schools  demonstrates its bureaucratization.
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Characteristics of         School  Bureaucracy Specialization division: Administrators who run schools Teachers who either concentrate on one or two  topics, or teach a specific grade level Specialists who purchase materials Specialists who test and counsel students Specialists who manage libraries Specialists who drive buses, serve lunches, and type  memos.
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Characteristics of        School  Bureaucracy Education of large numbers of students can be  accomplished most efficiently when the students  are homogeneous in development and ability. It is thought to be more efficient to have all teachers  of a given subject teaching the same material. Rules and procedures exist to ensure         that  students can transfer from one        school to  another without losing continuity  of curriculum. 
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Reforms in the Classroom In the 1920s and 1930s, John Dewey led the  progressive education movement, with a child- centered focus and emphasis on work-related  knowledge. 1960s and 1970s, humanistic education movement  advocated for elimination of restrictive rules and  codes and the involvement of students in the  educational process.
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Reforms in the Classroom 1983, the back-to-basics movement due to  deficiencies in the education system. Emphasis  placed on a minimum core curriculum that all  students must take. In 2002, Bush signed a bill known as “No Child Left 
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chapter12 - Chapter12 Education ChapterOutline...

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