RNR_exam_3 - 19 October 2007 Friday Beginning of Material...

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19 October 2007, Friday Beginning of Material Exam 3 Conservation of Forest Resources This area has had increasing public attention during the past few decades Problems: 1. Rainforest destructions: the worst problem in terrestrial ecosystems due to a) rain forest ability to take CO2 from the atmosphere and b) rain forest help in mitigating global warming c) due to poor soil cutting rainforest causes severe erosion 2. Logging controversie s: a) clearcutting – economically it is the best way to remove trees, however, environmentally it leads to erosion and other problems. b) “patch-work” cutting causes habitat break-up 3. Loss of forest-dwelling species: Spotted owl, red cockaded woodpecker - US Golden lion tamarin - Brazil Mt. Gorilla - Rwanda, Burundi Forests have Value because of : 1. Wood and paper products $140 billion in 2002 In LA wood and paper products is our #1 non-petroleum industry. 2. Aquifer recharge : trees keep soil broken up, giving ground water the ability to filter down to aquifer and not just run off into streams and rivers 3. Biogeochemical and hydrologic pump – water travels from the soil to trees and out through the leaves to the atmosphere 4. Soil stabilization - root systems 5. Fuel – 3 billion people depend on wood for fuel, half of all timber cut is used for heat 6. Local climate – climate under trees is very different from above the trees, shading important for the cattle industry 7. Recreation – hiking, camping, etc. 8. Wildlife habitat – vertical habitat diversity Forest types: 1. Soft Wood - Pine, fir 2. Hardw ood - Oak, hickory , walnut, ash lower density wood fibers Dense wood fibers long, straight trunks, few limbs many limbs, little
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“straight” wood Deciduous The wood is difficult to work with Examples of forest types in the SE U.S.: Map m-cypress - found in Atchafalaya Basin, FL, east coast f slash pine – savannah area, open forest type, less today due to longleaf pine taking time to mature, loss of gopher tortoise with longleaf pine - upland areas af pine – dominant in the SE due to replacing of longleaf pine areas with this pine, which matures quicker Forest Stands : Definition - A group of trees in an area that are similar in species composition, age and structure and can be distinguished from adjoining forest Forest Succession: Exposed rock to lichen, mosses to grasses to Aspen to White Spruce Herbs black spruce Balsam fir Shrubs Jack Pine Paper birch Pioneer Community Intermediate community Climax Community Primary succession -------leads to------- old growth forests (Forest that have never been cut, many snags) Snags are standing dead timber , these increase the complexity of the forest Secondary succession ----leads to ---- secondary forest (Previously cut and regenerated) Discussion: Biodiversity is greater in old growth forest versus secondary growth forest (these are often all one species).
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