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Ch04 7e Choice Theory - Choice Theory • Development of...

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Unformatted text preview: Choice Theory • Development of Choice Theory • Concepts of Rational Choice • Rationality of Crime • Choice Theories of Crime • Eliminating Crime and Policy Implications of Choice Theory Chapter 5 - 1 The Development of Rational Choice Theory Rational a Roots in the classical school of Roots criminology developed by Cesare Beccaria. Beccaria. • Beccaria called for fair and certain punishment Beccaria to deter crime to • Beccaria argued against marginal deterrence Beccaria which refers petty offenses being subjected to same punishment as more serious crimes same The Development of Rational Choice Theory Rational a The Classical Theory of Crime The • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1833) Jeremy – Believed people choose actions on the Believed basis of pleasure and avoid pain basis Core Concepts of Choice or Classical Criminology or People choose all behavior, all including criminal including behavior. People’s choice can be controlled by the fear of the punishment. punishment. The more severe, certain and swift the punishment, the greater its ability to control criminal behavior. Four Utilitarian Objectives of Punishment Objectives To prevent all criminal offenses. When it cannot prevent a When crime, to convince the offender to commit a less serious one. serious To ensure that a criminal uses no more force than uses is necessary. is To prevent a crime as cheaply as possible. What does it mean to be rational? rational? Rationality? What do others say? Are Choices Rational? Chapter 5 - 6 Is Crime Rational????? a Street Street Are there different definitions of “rational”? Chapter 5 - 7 Crime Crime a Drug Use a Violence and and RESULTING CRIME ELIMINATION STRATEGIES STRATEGIES Choice Theories a Rational Choice a Routine Activities Theory Crime Elimination Strategies a General Deterrence Theory a Specific Deterrence Theory a Incapacitation a Situational Crime Prevention Chapter 5 - 8 Choice Theories: Rational Choice Choice a MAJOR PREMISE Law-violating behavior is an event that occurs after offenders weigh information on their personal needs and the situational factors involved in the difficulty and risk of committing a crime. Chapter 5 - 9 a STRENGTHS Explains why high-risk youth do not constantly engage in delinquency acts. Relates theory to delinquency control policy. It is not limited by class or other social variables. Concepts in Rational Choice Marginal Deterrence a Offense specific crime vs. offender Offense specific crime specific a • Crime vs. Criminality a Structuring Criminality • • • Chapter 5 10 Economic Opportunity Learning and Experience Knowledge of Criminal Techniques Rational Choice Concepts Rational cont’d cont’d a Structuring Crime • Choosing the type of crime • Choosing the time and place • Choosing the target Chapter 5 11 Rational Choice and Rational Routine Activities Routine a Routine activities provides a macro view of crime, rational Routine macro choice theory provides a micro view of why individuals micro offenders decide to commit specific crimes. The connection between the two theories: connection • • • a Chapter 5 12 target vulnerability is a consideration presence of capable guardians may deter crime crime rates correspond to the number of motivated criminals. The strength of this approach is that it can explain The fluctuations in crime and delinquency rates and shows how victim behavior can influence criminal choices victim Routine Activity Theory a a a Chapter 5 13 “people make choices, but they cannot people choose the choices available to them.” (Felson, 1986:119) (Felson, Some people are more likely than others Some to confront situations where the rewards of crime are high and the risks are low. of For a crime to occur: a motivated offender, For motivated must come into contact with suitable targets in the absence of capable targets guardians. guardians Routine Activity Theory a a a a a Chapter 5 14 Takes motivated offenders as a given. Explains variation in crime as a function of Explains availability of suitable targets. availability Suitable targets are the benefits of crime Capable guardians are the costs of crime Discuss changes in routine activities as Discuss either increasing or decreasing suitable targets or increasing or decreasing capable guardians. capable Routine Activity Quite different from other theories. Quite Most theories focus on the factors that motivate offenders. Routine Activity suggest that motivated offenders are a given and focuses on opportunities for crime. opportunities a Findings are generally supportive of Findings this perspective. this a Chapter 5 15 Routine Activities Theory a Chapter 5 16 Cohen and Felson (1979) define Cohen routine activities… “recurrent and prevalent activities which provide for basic population and individual needs…formalized work, as well as the provisions of standard food, shelter, sexual outlet, leisure, social interaction, learning, and childbearing.” (593) childbearing.” Routine Activities Theory In addition to guardians such as In police there are informal social controls. controls. a Change in any of the elements Change effects crime a Have researched suitable targets and Have absence of capable guardians absence a Cohen 1981 renamed it Opportunity Cohen Theory. Theory. a Chapter 5 17 Eliminating Crime: General Deterrence a Chapter 5 18 MAJOR MAJOR PREMISE PREMISE People will commit People crime and delinquency if they perceive that the benefits outweigh the risks. Crime is a function of the severity, certainty, and speed of a STRENGTHS Shows the relationship between crime and punishment. Suggests a real solution to crime. Studies of General Deterrence There is little clear cut evidence that There the perception or reality of punishment can deter most crime punishment a The certainty of punishment seems The to have a greater influence on the choice of crime than the severity of punishment punishment a Chapter 5 19 Eliminating Crime: Specific Deterrence a MAJOR PREMISE If punishment is severe enough, criminals will not repeat their illegal acts. Chapter 5 20 a STRENGTHS Provides a strategy to reduce crime. Specific Deterrence Deterrence Instead of deterring crime, Instead could punishment cause more? cause Would it be better to Would stigmatize offenders? stigmatize What do they mean when What they say we should use reintegrative shaming? reintegrative Eliminating Crime: Incapacitation a MAJOR PREMISE Keeping known criminals out of circulation will reduce crime rates. Chapter 5 22 a STRENGTHS Recognizes the role opportunity plays in criminal behavior. Provides solution to chronic offending. Eliminating Crime: Eliminating Situational Crime Prevention Increasing Perceived Effort 1. Target hardening 2. Access control 3. Deflecting offenders 4. Controlling facilitators Increasing Perceived Risks 5. Entry / exit screening 6. Formal surveillance 7. Surveillance by employees 8. Natural surveillance Reducing Anticipated Rewards Inducing Guilt or Shame 9. Target removal 13. Rule setting 10. Identifying property 14. Strengthening moral 14. 11. Reducing temptation condemnation 12. Denying benefits 15. Controlling disinhibitors 15. 16. Facilitating compliance ...
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