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CHP07_Social StructureTheory

CHP07_Social StructureTheory - Social Structure Theories...

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Unformatted text preview: Social Structure Theories Social Structural Theories Social x x Development What is sociology and why did it come to dominate What explanations of human behavior? explanations Social Change Social Culture of Poverty Culture x Social Structural Theories Social Disorganization Social Strain Strain Cultural Deviance Cultural Social Change or Culture of Poverty Culture x Social Change Post Industrial Society Post Change in Technology Change Economic Structure of Society Economic x Culture of Poverty Cynicism Cynicism Mistrust in Government/ Agents of Soc. Cont. Mistrust Truly Disadvantaged Never given a chance Truly Social Change/Culture of Poverty Social x 1920’s Women vote for the first time Prohibition legislated Stock Market crashes Stock x 1930’s The Great Depression FDR's Fireside Chats x 1940’s World War II; War production pulls the country out of the Depression Scrap drives for steel, tin, paper and rubber Returning GIs create the Baby Boom Returning x 1950’s American industry expands to meet peacetime needs of thousands of young servicemen with new families, jobs and homes "Separate but equal" educational opportunities for blacks; in 1954, integration began across America with Supreme Court decision Social Change/Culture of Poverty Social x 1960’s 70 million children became teenagers and young adults Civil Rights Movement Civil x 1970’s Women's Lib is born By 1974, economy in worst recession in 40 years By x 1980’s Reagan declares the war on drugs Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman on the Supreme Court Volunteerism and contributions reach an all-time high ($115 billion) AIDS emerges as a Health Care crisis AIDS Three Branches of Social Structure Theory Theory Social disorganization theory focuses on conditions in the environment Strain theory Strain focuses on conflict focuses between goals and means. Cultural deviance theory combines the two. Crime Social Disorganization Theory: Social Concentric Zone Theory http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/socdisor.html MAJOR PREMISE Theoretical Basis Crime is a product of Crime transitional neighborhoods that manifest social disorganization and value conflict. conflict. • Crime Rates linked to neighborhood characteristics • Breakdown in informal social control or inability to establish • Pulling forces that attract group membership (I.e. gangs) A decrease in the influence of existing social rules of behavior upon the individual members of the group. An area where social institutions, norms and values, are no longer functioning." Without normative constraint==>Anything goes==Deviance flourishes. Social Disorganization Theory: Social Concentric Zone Theory Model Strain/Anomie Theory Strain/Anomie Durkheim – Anomie x Merton – Anomie and Crime x Merton – Strain and Crime x Modes of Adaptation x Extension of Theory (Agnew General Extension Strain Theory) Strain x Anomie – Merton’s Reconceptualization Reconceptualization • Reconceptualizes Durkheim's concept of Anomie. • Not an overall, or even localized breakdown in normative structure. • The cultural system and social structure of society is basically intact, workable, functional. • In fact, to a certain extent, Deviance represents the functionality of the system. • Merton's "Dream Machine." • Problem is: A disjuncture within the cultural system between the Goals (values) which define our lives and the culturally determined, institutionalized, legitimate Means for achieving them. Strain Theory: Anomie MAJOR PREMISE People who adopt the goals of People society but lack the means to attain them society seek alternatives, such as crime. seek STRENGTHS Points out how competition for success creates Points conflict and crime. Suggests that social conditions and not personality can account for crime. Can explain middle- and upper-class crime. . Basic Component of Strain Theory Basic Poverty Maintenance of conventional Maintenance rules and norms rules Strain Formation of gangs Formation and groups and Crime and delinquency Criminal Careers Careers Typology of Individual Modes of Adaptation Adaptation MODES OF ADAPTATION ADAPTATION CULTURAL GOALS INSTITUTIONALIZED MEANS 1. Conformity + + 2. Innovation 2. + - 3. Ritualism 3. - + 4. Retreatism - - +/- +/- 5. Rebellion General Strain Theory General Strain has a variety of sources. Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms. x x x Agnew broadened strain theory Not just a difference between what is expected Not and what is achieved and Strain produces negative stimuli produces removes positive stimuli removes Cultural Deviance Theory: Cultural Miller’s Focal Concern Theory Focal Concerns MAJOR PREMISE Citizens who obey the street rules of lower-class life (focal rules concerns) find themselves in concerns) conflict with the dominant culture. • Trouble • Toughness • Smartness • Excitement • Fate • Autonomy Cultural Deviance Theory: Cultural Cohen’s Theory of Delinquent Gangs MAJOR PREMISE Status frustration of lower-class boys, created by their failure to achieve middle-class success, middle-class causes them to join gangs. gangs. STRENGTHS Shows how the conditions of lower-class life produce crime. Explains violence and destructive acts. Identifies conflict of lower class with middle class. Cultural Deviance Theory: Cloward and Ohlin’s Theory of Cloward Opportunity Opportunity MAJOR PREMISE: Blockage of conventional opportunities causes lower-class youths to join criminal, conflict, or retreatist gangs. STRENGTHS: Shows that even illegal opportunities are structured in society. Indicates why people become involved in a particular type of criminal activity. Presents a way of preventing crime. ...
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