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This article appears in Software Tools for Technology Transfer. The original version is available at www.springerlink.com An overview of JML tools and applications Lilian Burdy 1 , Yoonsik Cheon 2 , David R. Cok 3 , Michael D. Ernst 4 , Joseph R. Kiniry 5 , Gary T. Leavens 6 , K. Rustan M. Leino 7 , Erik Poll 5 1 INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France 2 Dept. of Computer Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA 3 Eastman Kodak Company, R&D Laboratories, Rochester, New York, USA 4 Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 5 Dept. of Computer Science, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands 6 Dept. of Computer Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 7 Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, USA Received: date / Revised version: date Abstract. The Java Modeling Language (JML) can be used to specify the detailed design of Java classes and interfaces by adding annotations to Java source files. The aim of JML is to provide a specification language that is easy to use for Java programmers and that is supported by a wide range of tools for specification type-checking, runtime debugging, static analysis, and verification. This paper gives an overview of the main ideas be- hind JML, details about JML’s wide range of tools, and a glimpse into existing applications of JML. 1 Introduction JML [57,58], the Java Modeling Language, is useful for specifying detailed designs of Java classes and interfaces. JML is a behavioral interface specification language for Java; that is, it specifies both the behavior and the syn- tactic interface of Java code. The syntactic interface of a Java class or interface consists of its method signatures, the names and types of its fields, etc. This is what is commonly meant by an application programming inter- face (API). The behavior of such an API can be pre- cisely documented in JML annotations; these describe the intended way that programmers should use the API. In terms of behavior, JML can detail, for example, the preconditions and postconditions for methods as well as class invariants, in the Design by Contract style [73]. An important goal for the design of JML is that it should be easily understandable by Java programmers. This is achieved by staying as close as possible to Java syntax and semantics. Another important design goal is that JML not impose any particular design methodology on users; instead, JML should be able to document Java programs designed in any manner. Supported in part by US NSF grants CCR-0097907 and CCR- 0113181 The work on JML was started by Gary Leavens and his colleagues and students at Iowa State University. It has since grown into a cooperative, open e ff ort. Several groups worldwide are now building tools that support the JML notation and are involved with the ongoing design of JML. For an up-to-date list, see the JML web- site, www.jmlspecs.org . The open, cooperative nature of the JML e ff ort is important both for tool developers and users, and we welcome participation by others. For
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