Political - Political Geography The study of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Political Geography The study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena in their areal expression Geographers Use of the Words State State and Nation Nation State State an an independent political unit holding sovereignty over a defined territory and over all the people and activities within it Nation Nation a culturally distinctive group of people culturally occupying a particular region and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs Relationships Between States and Nations (a) nation-state (a) nationa state ruling over a territory state containing all the people of a nation and no others (b) multinational state (b) a state containing more than state one nation (c) part-nation state (c) parta single nation dispersed single across and predominant in two or more states (d) stateless nation (d) a people without a state people 1 Evolution of the Modern State Developed Developed by European political philosophers in the 18th century people people owe allegiance to a state and its people, rather than to a king or feudal lord Many Many states are the result of European expansion during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries colonizers colonizers imposed their arbitrary new administrative divisions of the land Evolution of the Modern State The The idea of separate statehood grew slowly at first 1776 1776 – about 35 empires, kingdoms, and countries 1939 1939 – approximately 70 2006 2006 – nearly 200 15 newly independent countries replaced the former USSR Geographic Characteristics of States Shape Shape Compact Compact roughly roughly circular shape Elongated Elongated long long and narrow Prorupt Prorupt nearly nearly compact but possesses one or more narrow extensions Fragmented Fragmented separated separated and discontinuous Perforated Perforated interrupted interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders 2 Special Cases of Fragmented and Perforated States Exclave Exclave a territorial outlier territorial of one state is located within another state Enclave Enclave a territory that is territory surrounded by, but is not part of, a state Spanish Exclaves in North Africa and France NagornoNagorno-Karabakh, A Mountainous Enclave in Azerbaijan Landlocked States States States that lack a seacoast and are surrounded by other states These These states are at a commercial and strategic disadvantage, compared to countries that have ocean frontage 3 Boundaries Natural Natural (physical) boundaries those those based on recognizable physiographic features Artificial Artificial (geometric) boundaries often often a section of a parallel of latitude or meridian of longitude Several international borders run through the Himalayas. The mountain boundary between India and China has long been in dispute. Territorial Claims in Antarctica Seven Seven countries claim sovereignty over portions of Antarctica, and those of Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom overlap The The Antarctic Treaty of 1959 froze those claims for 30 years, banned further land claims, and made scientific research the primary use of the continent The The treaty was extended for 50 years in 1991 Antarctica Antarctica is neither a sovereign state nor a part of one 4 The Four Corners Monument Boundaries Classified by Settlement Antecedent Antecedent boundary drawn drawn across an area before it is well populated Subsequent Subsequent boundary drawn drawn after the development of the cultural landscape Consequent Consequent boundary drawn drawn to accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences Superimposed Superimposed boundary force force upon existing cultural landscapes, a country, or a people by a conquering or colonizing power Relic Relic boundary A former boundary that no longer functions as such former Discrepancies Between Ethnic Groups and National Boundaries in Africa Cultural Cultural boundaries were ignored by European colonial powers The The result was ethnic diversity within countries and conflicts over borders 5 Boundaries as Sources of Conflict Landlocked Landlocked states Waterbodies Waterbodies as national boundaries MinorityMinority-group identification Resource Resource disputes Geographic Sources of International Stress A map of a hypothetical state and potential trouble spots map 6 Regional Conflicts Gap Gap Water Project (Southeastern Anatolia Project) Irrigation Irrigation and hydropower 22 22 dams and 19 power plants on the Tigris and Euphrates Regional Conflicts Turkey: Turkey: vows no disruption of the rivers Disagreement: Disagreement: Tigris (Syria) will drop by 40% Euphrates Euphrates (Iraq) will drop by 80% Turkey Turkey will control flows Regional Conflicts Regional Regional problem Syria Syria and Turkey do not get along Syria Syria supports Kurdish independence movements in Turkey Turkey Turkey has threatened to cut off Syria’s water 7 Landlocked States About oneAbout one-fifth of the world’s states are landlocked Bolivia Like Like many other landlocked countries, Bolivia has gained access to the sea through arrangements with neighboring states Unlike Unlike most landlocked countries, however, Bolivia can access ports on two oceans The Disputed Boundary Between Argentina and Chile in the Southern Andes The The treaty establishing the boundary between the two countries preceded adequate exploration and mapping of the area, leaving its precise location in doubt 8 The Basque Region Although Although the Basques were granted a measure of self-rule for selftheir region, militant separatists in the Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) want to see the establishment of an independent state U.S./Mexico Border To To stem the flow of undocumented migrants entering California from Baja California, the United States, in 1993, constructed a fence 3 meters (10 ft) high along the border The Rumaila Oil Field Iraqi Iraqi grievances over Kuwaiti drilling were partly responsible for Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 9 Centripetal Forces Nationalism Nationalism a sense of unity binding sense the people of a state together the the Pledge of Allegiance is one way schools seek to instill a sense of national identity in students Centripetal Forces Unifying Unifying Institutions schools, schools, armed forces, and churches develop a sense of commitment and cohesiveness Organization Organization & Administration security, security, resource distribution, and equal opportunity develop public confidence Centripetal Forces Transportation Transportation & Communication fosters fosters political integration by promoting economic and social interaction between areas Canada and the U.S. developed independent railway systems connecting their prairie regions with their national cores 10 Centrifugal Forces Organized Organized religion may may compete with the state for people’s allegiance or oppose state policies Subnationalism Subnationalism primary primary allegience is given to smaller traditional groups or nations Regionalism Regionalism group group identification with a particular region of the state Devolution Devolution the the transfer of certain powers from the central government to separate political subdivisions Irridentism Irridentism When When a country asserts that a group living outside its borders belongs to it historically and culturally Regions in Western Europe Seeking Autonomy Boundaries and Group Identity Spain Spain 2X 2X the size of Oregon 16 16 Autonomous communities Regional/ethnic Regional/ethnic identity vs. national identity 11 15 Independent Countries of the Former USSR By mid-1992, the 15 former Soviet constituent republics had declared their status as fully independent states, but those declarations did not assure the satisfaction of all separatist movements within them. Geopolitical confusion Seccessionist Seccessionist and irredentist movements from complex motivations Revival Revival of ethnic/national identity Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction with economic/political situation The Geography of Representation Electoral Electoral geography the the study of voting districts and voting patterns Redistricting Redistricting the the changing of electoral district/constituency boundaries in response to periodic census results Gerrymandering Gerrymandering the the drawing of voting district lines in ways that include or exclude specific groups of voters, so that one group gains an unfair advantage 12 The Original Gerrymander the the term originated in 1811 from the shape of an electoral district formed in Massachusetts while Elbridge Gerry was governor when when an artist added certain animal features, the district resembled a salamander and quickly came to be called a gerrymander Alternative Districting Strategies Xs Xs and Os might represent Republicans and Democrats, urban and rural voters, blacks and whites, or any other distinctive groups Political Fragmentation of Champaign County, Illinois boundaries boundaries of specialspecialpurpose districts do not coincide with the standard major and minor civil divisions 13 Voting Rights and Race the the irregularly shaped congressional voting districts represent a deliberate attempt to balance voting rights and race they they have been called extreme examples of racial gerrymandering, however, and at least in part ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court 14 ...
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