(e)The aryl halide with nitro groups ortho and para to the bromide leaving group is more reactivethan the aryl halide with only one nitro group.23.15(a)The nucleophile is the lithium salt of pyrrolidine, which reacts with bromobenzene by anelimination–addition mechanism.(b)The nucleophile in this case is piperidine. The substrate, 1-bromo-2,4-dinitrobenzene, is veryreactive in nucleophilic aromatic substitution by the addition–elimination mechanism.(c)Of the two bromine atoms, one is ortho and the other meta to the nitro group. Nitro groupsactivate positions ortho and para to themselves toward nucleophilic aromatic substitution, andso it will be the bromine ortho to the nitro group that is displaced.
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