24.13(a)The reaction is an acid–base reaction. Phenol is the acid; sodium hydroxide is the base.(b)Sodium phenoxide reacts with ethyl bromide to yield ethyl phenyl ether in a Williamsonreaction. Phenoxide ion acts as a nucleophile.(c)p-Toluenesulfonate esters behave much like alkyl halides in nucleophilic substitution reac-tions. Phenoxide ion displaces p-toluenesulfonate from the primary carbon.(d)Carboxylic acid anhydrides react with phenoxide anions to yield aryl esters.(e)Acyl chlorides convert phenols to aryl esters.(f)Phenols react as nucleophiles toward epoxides.CH3OHm-CresolEthylene oxideH2CCH2O2-(3-Methylphenoxy)ethanolH3COCH2CH2OHOHOCHClCH3CH3CClOOo-Cresol
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