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CHAPTER 13 - C HAPTER 13 Stress any event or circumstance...

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CHAPTER 13 Stress : any event or circumstance that strains or exceeds an individual’s ability to cope Sources of Stress: 1. Life events : psychologically significant events that occur in a person’s life, such as divorce, childbirth, or change in employment Crime & violence : a group of women who were victims of assault were interviewed; they experienced high levels of stress symptoms like irritability and anxiety, upsetting memories and dreams, and illusions of being assaulted again (post-traumatic stress disorder) Loss of family member : widowed women and men were more likely to exhibit serious depression during the first year after the death of their spouse than were married women and men who had lost their partners. Natural disasters : example- Mont Saint Helens volcanic eruption was extremely stressful to the residents of Othello, Washington and deaths increased 19% the year following the eruption. Terrorism : many studies have found that anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and intrusive flashback thoughts about the disaster were common long after the attacks, particularly for those who were near the attack or lost loved ones or possessions. Daily hassles : the pressures of work, getting a speeding ticket, losing your glasses, having your friend arrive an hour late for dinner, and countless other daily irritants can grate abrasively on mind and body. Positive life events : college graduation, birth of a child job promotion, and the purchase of a house are examples of events that most people think of as positive, but they may also require stressful adjustments in patterns of living. 2. Frustration : the result of being unable to satisfy a motive 3. Conflict : the state in which two or more motives cannot be satisfied because they interfere with one another Approach-approach : conflict in which the individual must choose between two positive goals of approximately equal value o If both jobs are so good, why do I feel so anxious? Avoidance-avoidance : conflict in which the individual must choose between two negative outcomes of approximately equal value o A person with a toothache must choose between a tooth that hurts and the anticipated discomfort of the dentist
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Approach-avoidance : conflict in which achieving a positive goal will produce a negative outcome as well o A girl is accepted into a prestigious college out of state but will mean being separated from her serious boyfriend Multiple approach-avoidance : conflict that requires the individual to choose between two alternatives, each of which contains both positive and negative consequences o You have been accepted into two colleges to play basketball. One college has a better team but you hate the coach and some of the players; the other has a worse record but people you enjoy playing with. Both have positive and negative consequences- which one do you choose?
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