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CHAPTER 16 - CHAPTER 16 Social Psychology o Social...

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CHAPTER 16 Social Psychology o Social psychology : the branch of psychology that studies individuals as they interact with others. 1.Self-persuasion is defined by self-directive behavior. 2.The more outside control, the less inside control. 3.The more obvious the external control, the less the self-persuasion. 4.Mild threats influence more self-persuasion. 5.Large incentives can hinder self-persuasion. 6.Perceived choice enhances self-persuasion. 7.Perceived choice is greater when working to achieve success than when working to avoid failure. Seven Principles of Social Dynamics Influence Safety Improvement Consistency : We resist change. We act ourselves into certain thinking, and vice versa. We honor public, active, and voluntary commitment. Reciprocity : We return favors. We are more likely to comply after retreating. Ingratiation : We are attracted to similarities. We like those who praise us and cooperate. We actively care for the people we like. Conformity : We follow those who are similar and credible. We model most in unfamiliar situations. Authority : We follow authority blindly and mindlessly. We follow those with credibility. Scarcity : We react to protect our individuality. We value rare opportunities. We are motivated to avoid loss. Novelty : We habituate to the routine. We are attentive and attracted to the unique. Groups & Social Influence Deindividuation : state in which people in a group can feel anonymous and unidentifiable and therefore feel less concerned with what others think of their behavior
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Bystander Apathy : Kitty Genovese- beaten and stabbed to death in a residential area of New York City over the course of 30 minutes; 38 people saw but no one helped. Diffusion of responsibility: the effect of being in a group that apparently reduces the sense of personal responsibility of each group member to act appropriately. Social Facilitation: an effect in which working in a group improves one’s performance on individual projects. Social Loafing: the tendency of members of group to work less hard when group performance is measured than when individual performance is measured. Groupthink: the faulty decision-making process that may occur in groups. Polarization: the tendency for group discussion to make beliefs and attitudes more extreme Risky Options: studies have shown that most of us do NOT recommend risky options when we are alone with the person asking for advice; however, when groups of persons discuss such dilemmas, they are much more likely to take extreme positions and recommend risky options. Social Conformity o Conformity : yielding to group pressure even when no direct request to comply has been made o Public vs. private judgments : o Clear-cut vs. ambiguous situations : o Size & consensus of group : o Individualistic vs. collectivistic cultures : Social Roles : culturally determined guidelines that tell people what behavior is expected of them Social Norms
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