EXAM ONE chapters

EXAM ONE chapters - C HAP TER ONE: The earliest origins of...

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CHAPTER ONE: The earliest origins of psychology are found in the writings of the ancient Greek philosophers about the nature of life , particularly the work of Aristotle. o Aristotle: 4 th century B.C. Interested in the nature of living things Collected and discussed plants and animals to see how their organs sustained life; he studied reproduction to see how life was recreated in each generation, and he studied everyday actions of living people as they reasoned, spoke, remembered, and learned. Used the term psyche to refer to the essence of life (translated from the ancient Greek word, “mind”). The term psychology comes from psyche. Taught by Plato; Plato thought we could understand merely through thought- Aristotle emphasized the importance of observing and experiencing the world . Psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes o It is considered a science because psychologists attempt to understand people by thinking critically about careful, controlled observations. o It is a behavior in that it refers to all of a person’s overt actions that others can directly observe. o It is a mental process because it refers to the private thoughts, emotions, feelings, and motives that other people cannot directly observe. Goals of psychology : 2. Describe : information gathered in scientific studies helps psychologists describe behavior and mental processes accurately. 3. Predict : In some cases, research gives psychologists the tools to predict future behavior reasonably well. 4. Understand : We understand behavior and mental processes when can explain them
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5. Influence : Psychologists hope to go beyond description, understanding, and prediction to influence behavior in beneficial ways. Founding the Science of Psychology : - The launching of the separate field of psychology is usually credited to Wilhelm Wundt; he established the first laboratory of Psychology in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. - Some historians believe William James deserves the honor for a less-publicized laboratory that opened in 1875 at Harvard University. - The first psychologists wanted to understand the basic elements of consciousness and how they worked together. - Wilhelm Wundt - a professor of biology in Germany who was fascinated by human consciousness; he and Titchener wanted to identify the basic elements of conscious experience- viewpoint known as structuralism (19 th century school of psychology that sought to determine the structure of the mind through controlled introspection). They used introspection (a method of looking inwardly at one’s own conscious experiences). - J. Henry Alston- (structuralism) best known for his studies of the sensations of heat and cold; he found we feel an intense kind of heat when the warm and cold receptors of the skin are stimulated at the same time. HE conducted the experiment with a cold of hot and cold pipes. Also, the first African American psychologist to publish a research paper in a journal
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course PSYC 95298 taught by Professor Geller during the Spring '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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EXAM ONE chapters - C HAP TER ONE: The earliest origins of...

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