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Test4Notes - Test 4 BLOOD Blood Functions Distributive o...

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Test 4 BLOOD Blood Functions: - Distributive o Delivers oxygen and nutrients to all cells o Carries metabolic wastes to elimination sites o Carries hormones to target organs o Maintains body temperature; absorbs and distributes heat 22-25% of cardiac output is put toward cooling purposes during hot humid weather, rather than carrying nutrients and oxygen to the muscles and organs - Protective o Maintains normal pH of tissues o Maintains circulatory volume If you go give blood, your circulatory volume will be back to normal very quickly o Prevents blood loss o Combats infection Physical Characteristics of Blood (FYI*) - Viscosity= 4.5-5.5 - Temperature= 38 degrees C/ 100.4 degrees F - pH= 7.35-7.45 - NaCl (normal saline)concentrations= .85%- .90% - Total body weight= 8% - Volume= 4-5 L for women, 5-6 L for men Slide 3- Good overview of components of blood (Figure 13.01) Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis)- blood cell formations - Occurs in: (All blood cells, start in the myeloid tissue [red marrow/spongy bone])
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o Myeloid tissue (begin and fully completed) Erythrocytes (rbc-red blood cell) All granulocytes (wbc) Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils One agranulocyte (wbc) Monocyte Thrombocytes (platelets) o Lymphoid tissue (start in myeloid but end in lymphoid) One agranulocyte (wbc) Lymphocytes Slide 6** (Figure 13.3) Pluripotent stem cell (result of a differentiated Mesenchymal cell) - Can replicat e itself and replenish itself - Will differentiat e into: o Myeloid st e m o Lymphoid st e m Multipotent- differentiate into a nu m b er of other blood cells, also replenish - Ex. Myeloid and lymphoid Progenitor level (blue blocks)- can only differentiate, cannot replenish - Ultimat ely b eco m e the adult blood cells - Don’t n e e d to know blue blocks* Proerythroblast (special process = erythropoiesis) 1 st stage- Formation of ribosomes
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2 nd stage- Formation of specialized proteins called hemoglobin (becomes the dominant component of the adult rbc) - Hemoglobin carries the oxygen throughout the body - 4 Iron ato m s on the he m oglobin m olecules, a nd e ach carries one 3 rd stage- Reticulocyte established (immature red cell) - Nucleus is reject ed - Hemoglobin re m ains along with a very s m all frag m ent of ER 4 th Stage- Mature red cell - When the Reticulocyte is released, it is still a n imm ature cell, it m atures in the blood strea m Stimulus- interrupts ho m eost asis!!! - Oxygen d elivery d ecreas es o Caused by a erobic exercise o Loss of blood (injury, diseas e) - Hypoxia = d ecre as ed levels of oxygen - REF (renal erythropoietin factor)- acts on albu min, results in the form ation of erythropoitin o Goes into the blood strea m, Hem atopoiesis takes place fast er o REF is s ecret ed by the kidneys when a drop in oxygen is d et ect ed PM of rbc - All p m’s are m alleable and can chang e shap e, rbc’s p m does the sa m e, a nd doesn’t loss any of its function - Spectrin- protein that give the p m of the rbc great flexibility o Capillaries ar e really s m all, this allows the rbc to p ass through ER left in the a dult rbc - As calcium increas es, Spectrin is overpowered, a nd the flexibility - Mostly happ ens in the spleen- discovered a nd d estroyed\
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