PHYSIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW.doc - BIOL 2204 Human Physiology for Nursing Cumulative Final Exam\u2019s Study Guide(Winter 2019 Section 1(matching 12 pts


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BIOL 2204 Human Physiology for Nursing Cumulative Final Exam’s Study Guide (Winter 2019) Section 1 (matching; 12 pts.) will cover Chapter 10 (based on the material covered in lecture and the assigned textbook pages). Be able to list and explain the events at the neuromuscular junction. 1. Action potential arrives at the axon terminal and triggers voltage gated Ca2+ channels in axon terminal to open. 2. Ca2+ enters axon terminal, moves down electrochemical gradient to trigger exocytosis of ACh from synaptic vesicles. 3. ACh released by exocytosis into synaptic cleft. 4. ACh diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to ACh receptors/ligand-gated ion channels on sarcolemma/motor end plate. 5. Ligand-gated ion channels open and Na+ enters the muscle fibre, and K+ exits the muscle fibre. Local change in membrane potential occurs (depolarization), called the end plate potential. 6. ACh broken down in synaptic cleft by acetylcholinesterase, diffused away from the junction, terminating ACh’s effects. Be able to list and explain the events of the excitation-contraction coupling process. 1. Action potential is propagated along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules 2. T-tubules proteins change shape in reaction to action potential transmission, opening Ca2+ release channels in terminal cisternae. Calcium ions are released 3. Ca2+ binds to troponin, troponin changes shape and moves tropomyosin away from the binding sites on the thin muscle filaments (actin) 4. Myosin (thick muscle) binds to exposed binding sites on thin filaments (actin). Cross-bridge cycle results in muscle contraction (shortening) Be able to list and explain the events of a cross-bridge cycle. 1. Cross-bridge formation – myosin head binds to thin filament (actin) 2. Power stroke – myosin head pivots and pulls actin towards the m-line/centre of the sarcomere 3. Cross-bridge detachment – ATP attaches to myosin head, cross-bridge detaches 4. Cocking of myosin head – ATP hydrolysed to ADP and inorganic phosphate, energy from hydrolysis cocks myosin head into high energy state
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Section 5 (short answer; 12 pts.) will cover only selected topics from Chapters 19, 20, 22, 23, 25 & 27 (based on the material covered in lecture and the assigned textbook pages), as follows: Topics for Chapter 19 Be able to list and explain all the major events that occur at either one of the three phases of the cardiac cycle. {If this question is included in the exam, you will be asked to answer it for one of the phases of the cardiac cycle. To earn full points, you need to include in your explanation the ECG wave (depolarization or repolarization event), chambers’ relaxation or contraction state, chambers’ pressure, valves closure/opening, ventricular volume) Three phases of the cardiac cycle 1. Ventricular filling (mid to late diastole) a. Semilunar valves are closed; atrioventricular valves are open b. Heart blood pressure is low; blood enters atria and flows into ventricles c. Atria contracting, ventricles relaxed d. Atrial systole occurs, which completes ventricular filling e. Sinoatrial node depolarizes f.
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