313240214-Elements-of-Chemistry-Lavoisier_0066.pdf - The Project Gutenberg eBook of Elements of Chemistry by Mr Lavoisier We have already shown that

313240214-Elements-of-Chemistry-Lavoisier_0066.pdf - The...

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08/08/2015 The Project Gutenberg eBook of Elements of Chemistry, by Mr Lavoisier. 66/229 We have already shown, that, when a vegetable substance is submitted to the action of fire in distilling vessels, its component elements, oxygen, hydrogen, and charcoal, which formed a threefold combination in a state of equilibrium, unite, two and two, in obedience to affinities which act conformable to the degree of heat employed. Thus, at the first application of the fire, whenever the heat produced exceeds the temperature of boiling water, part of the oxygen and hydrogen unite to form water; soon after the rest of the hydrogen, and part of the charcoal, combine into oil; and, lastly, when the fire is pushed to the red heat, the oil and water, which had been formed in the early part of the process, become again decomposed, the oxygen and charcoal unite to form carbonic acid, a large quantity of hydrogen gas is set free, and nothing but charcoal remains in the retort. A great part of these phenomena occur during the combustion of vegetables in the open air; but, in this case, the presence of the air introduces three new substances, the oxygen
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