Lecture 2_Theories on Aging.pptx - \u00b20\u201301\u2013 14 KIN 3510\u2013 Physical Activity and Aging Dr Ayesha Saleem Phenotype vs genotype Two main theories of

Lecture 2_Theories on Aging.pptx - ²0–01– 14 KIN...

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²0–01– 14 1 KIN 3510 Physical Activity and Aging Dr. Ayesha Saleem Jan 14, 2020 ! Phenotype vs. genotype ! Two main theories of aging (programmed vs. damage) ! Cellular hallmarks of aging ! Programmed theories – immunological, hormonal, biological clock, senescence etc. ! Damage theories – wear and tear, ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, genome instability, telomere shortening etc. ! Aging therapies caloric restriction, stem cell, hormonal, antiEoxidant, telomereEbased, exercise, parabiosis etc.
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²0–01– 14 ² ! “… the changes that occur during an organism’s lifespan…” ! “… the rate of change may vary widely…” A synopsis on aging E Theories , mechanisms and future prospects . da Costa JP, Vitorino R, Silva GM, Vogel C, Duarte AC, RochaESantos T. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Aug;29:90E112. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jun 25. Review . ! All organ systems display physiological changes with aging. ! Pathological vs. normal physiological aging hard to differentiate sometimes. ! Psychological changes are part of the aging process as well (cognition, sleep, stress/coping etc.) A synopsis on aging E Theories , mechanisms and future prospects . da Costa JP, Vitorino R, Silva GM, Vogel C, Duarte AC, RochaESantos T. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Aug;29:90E112. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jun 25. Review .
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²0–01– 14 A synopsis on aging E Theories , mechanisms and future prospects . da Costa JP, Vitorino R, Silva GM, Vogel C, Duarte AC, RochaESantos T. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Aug;29:90E112. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jun 25. Review . ! [Phenotype] = [Genotype] + [diet, lifestyle, environment]. ! Phenotype – observable characteristics due to the interaction of genotype with environmental/external factors. ! Genotype – complete genetic makeup of an individual (heritable characteristics). 25-32% of the variation in aging between people is due to genetics ! Average life expectancy in 2017 in Canada: Females = 83 years Males = 79 years ! Average life expectancy in 1920 in Canada: Females = 60.6 years Males = 58.8 years 16002Eeng.htm 3
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²0–01– 14 ! Aging is complex. ! No clear evidence as to whether molecular , cellular , or physiological changes are the “drivers of aging”. ! Each level of biology seems to be plausible in causing aging. ! Each level of biology likely plays a role in the overall process of aging. A synopsis on aging E Theories , mechanisms and future prospects . da Costa JP, Vitorino R, Silva GM, Vogel C, Duarte AC, RochaESantos T. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Aug;29:90E112. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jun 25. Review . Cellular Hallmarks of Aging Lopez5Otin, 2013 / action/showPdf? pii=S0092E8674%281 3%290 0645E4 Proteostasis: biogenesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins in cels 4
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²0–01– 14 J Genetic, and biological causes of aging (Seals et al, 2015) A = 3 E = 11 B = 6 F = 7 I = 4 C = 5 G = 10 J =2 D = 8 H = 9 K= 1
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²0–01– 14 @ Aging is a complex interaction of genetics, chemistry, physiology, and behavior.
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