1 Chapter 9 Solutions Summary 9.1 Solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture containing two or more substances. Usually, the substance with the lesser amount is called solute ; the substance in the greatest amount is considered the solvent . In solutions solutes and solvents are mixed at levels of molecules, ions, or atoms. Solute and solvent can be gases, liquids, or solids. Depending on the solvents, solutions can also be gases like air (78% of N 2 , 12% of O 2 , and 1% of other gases), liquids such as saltwater or solids like brass (Cu and Zn). 9.2 Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes An electrolyte is soluble in water. Due to the presence of free ions the resulting solutions are electrically conductive. • S trong electrolytes : NaCl(aq) à Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), ions only • Weak electrolytes : HF(aq) ßà H + (aq) + F - (aq), mostly molecules with a few ions • N onelectrolytes: C 2 H 5 OH(aq) à C 2 H 5 OH(aq), molecules only
2 An equivalent is equal to the electrical charge of one mole of the ions.
- Fall '10
- Solubility, Solvent