Organizational_Behavior___Introduction

Organizational_Behavior___Introduction - Organizational...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizational Behavior: Introduction Introduction Organizational behavior is a field of study that draws on theory, methods & principles from different disciplines. It seeks to learn about: s Individuals’ perceptions, values, learning capacities, & actions while working in groups & within the organization. s The effect of the external environment on the organization and its human resources, missions, objectives, & strategies. Organizational behavior: r Focuses on human behavior at individual, group, & organizational levels. s Is multidisciplinary. s Has a humanistic orientation. s Is performance oriented. s Is affected by the external environment. s Relies on the scientific method. s Has an applications orientation. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY CONTRIBUTIONS AND APPLICATION OF OB Behavior Science Psychology Sociology Topic, model, technique Perception Values Attitudes Recruitment Selection Motivation Level of Analysis Individual Organization theory Power Organization culture Work teams Group development Change Social Psych. Behavioral change Attitude change Group processes Group decision making Pol. Science Influence tactics Power and ethics Political strategies Empowerment Conflict resolution Illusion of power Anthropology Cross-cultural Values & morals communication Cross-cultural analysis Group Organization Field of OB OPERATING ASSUMPTIONS s s s Organizational behavior follows principles of human behavior principles Organizations are social systems Multiple factors shape Multiple organizational behavior organizational s Contingency approach: there’s there’s no one best way to manage in every situation; managers must find different ways that fit different situations different Structure and processes affect Structure organizational behavior and the emergent culture emergent A MODEL FOR MANAGING ORGANIZATIONS MODEL Environment Environment Behavior within organizations: The individual Individual differences and diversity Content explanations of motivation Process explanations of motivation Rewards obtained through organized behavior Behavior within organizations: Groups and interpersonal influence Group behavior and teamwork Intergroup behavior and team building Realities of power and politics Basic explanations for effective leadership practice The structure and design of organizations The structural anatomy of organizations Designing effective jobs in the global era Designing effective organizations in the global era The processes of organizations Managing effective communication processes Managing effective decision-making processes Managing effective change and renewal processes CAUSES OF EFFECTIVENESS Individual effectiveness Group effectiveness Organizational effectiveness Causes Ability Skill Knowledge Attitude Motivation Stress Causes Cohesiveness Leadership Structure Status Roles Norms Causes Environment Technology Strategic choices Structure Processes Culture MANAGEMENT’S CONTRIBUTION TO EFFECTIVENESS0 Management performs the functions of: Planning Organizing Leading Controlling To coordinate the behavior of: Individuals Groups Organizations Feedback To attain: Individual effectiveness Group effectiveness Organizational effectiveness RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS & INDIVIDUAL, GROUP & ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Sources of Effectiveness Management Functions Individuals Groups Organizations Planning Objectives Goals Missions Organizing Job designs Delegated authority Department or unit Integrative methods & processes Leading Person-centered influence Group-centered influence Entity-centered influence Controlling Individual standards of performance Group standards of performance Organization standards of performance Strategic Results: The 4-P Cycle of Continuous Improvement Continuous People (Skilled, motivated people who can handle change. Less stress.) Productivity (Less wasteful, more efficient use of all resources.) Products (Satisfied customers because of better quality goods/services.) Processes (Faster, more flexible, leaner, and ethical organizational processes. Organizational learning.) Skills Exhibited by an Effective Manager Effective 1. Clarifies goals and objectives for everyone involved 2. Encourages participation, upward communication, and 2. suggestions suggestions 3. Plans and organizes for an orderly work flow 4. Has technical and administrative expertise to answer 4. organization-related questions organization-related 5. Facilitates work through team building, training, 5. coaching and support coaching 6. Provides feedback honestly and constructively Skills Exhibited by an Effective Manager Effective (continued) 7. Keeps things moving by relying on schedules, 7. deadlines, and helpful reminders deadlines, 8. Controls details without being over-bearing 9. Applies reasonable pressure for goal 9. accomplishment accomplishment 10. Empowers and delegates key duties to others 10. while maintaining goal clarity and commitment while 11. Recognizes good performance with rewards and 11. positive reinforcement positive Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager Manager Primary Role Primary Learning & Learning Knowledge Past Managers Order giver, privileged Order elite, manipulator, elite, controller Periodic learning, narrow Periodic specialist Compensation Time, effort, rank Criteria Cultural Orientation Monocultural, monolingual monolingual Future Managers Facilitator, team member, teacher, member, advocate, sponsor Continuous life-long learning, generalist with multiple specialities Skills, results Multicultural, Multicultural, multilingual multilingual Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager (continued) Manager Primary Source of Primary Influence View of People View Primary Communications Pattern Decision-Making Decision-Making Style Ethical Considerations Past Managers Formal authority Formal Potential problem Potential Vertical Future Managers Knowledge (technical interpersonal) Primary resource Multidirectional Limited input for Limited individual decisions Afterthought Broad-based input for joint decisions Forethought Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager (continued) Manager Past Managers Competitive (win-lose) Competitive Nature of InterNature personal Relationships Handling of Power Hoard and Key Information Approach to Resist Approach Resist Change Future Managers Cooperative (win-win) Share Facilitate What Is Total Quality Management? (TQM) Management? Schonberger: TQM is “continuous, customer-centered, employeedriven improvement.” Principles of TQM: Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework Listen to and learn from customers and employees Make continuous improvement an everyday matter Build teamwork, trust and mutual respect The Total Quality Management Movement Movement W. Edwards Deming’s ideas about the human side of quality W. improvement: improvement: Formal training in statistical process control techniques and Formal teamwork teamwork Helpful leadership, rather than order giving and punishment Elimination of fear so employees will feel free to ask questions Emphasis on continuous process improvements rather than on Emphasis numerical quotas numerical Teamwork Elimination of barriers to good workmanship ...
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