paper 3 2001

881 181 2 21 n01430s3 e3

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Unformatted text preview: .............................................................. 881-181 [2] – 21 – N01/430/S(3) E3. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, scientists thought of heat as a fluid. (a) What was the name given to this fluid? [1] ......................................................................... (b) The diagram below represents the apparatus used by Joule in an experiment that helped to change the way in which scientists thought about heat. The experiment was repeated many times before a conclusion was reached. Drum Paddles Copper cylinder (i) Water Weight raised by turning the handle on the drum What was the aim of the experiment? [1] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... (ii) List all the measurements that were recorded. [4] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... (iii) In what way did the results of this experiment change scientists’ views about the nature of heat? [2] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... 881-181 Turn over – 22 – N01/430/S(3) OPTION F — ASTROPHYSICS F1. The table below gives information about two nearby stars. Star Distance away / ly Fomalhaut ("-Piscis Austrini) 1.2 22 Aldebaran ("-Tauri) (a) Apparent magnitude 0.9 68 To an observer on Earth which star would appear brighter? Justify your answer. [2] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (b) Explain the difference between apparent and absolute magnitudes. [2] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (c) Which star would have the lowest numerical value for absolute magnitude? Explain your answer. [2] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (d) The parallax angle for Fomalhaut is 0.148 arcseconds. Confirm that its distance away is 22 ly. [2] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (e) Would you expect Aldebaran to have a greater or smaller parallax angle than Fomalhaut? Explain your answer. ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... 881-181 [2] – 23 – N01/430/S(3) Blank page 881-181...
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