paper 3 2001

N01430s3 the diagram below represents a simplified

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Unformatted text preview: Turn over – 24 – F2. N01/430/S(3) The diagram below represents a simplified Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with a particular star (Spica) and the Sun identified. • • •• Spica •• • •• • • • •• ••• •• • •• • •• • • •• • • • • •• • • • • •• •• •• • • •• • • • • • • •• • • •• • • • •• • • •• • • • • •• Sun • •• •• •• •• •• •• •• (a) Label the axes. (b) How does Spica compare with our Sun in the following respects? Explain your reasoning. (i) [2] Surface temperature. [1] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... (ii) Mass. [1] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... (This question continues on the following page) 881-181 – 25 – N01/430/S(3) (Question F2 continued) (c) The spectrum of light from the Sun is shown below. Relative Intensity 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Wavelength / nm [Source: Dobson, Grace and Lovett, Physics, Page 623] Use this spectrum to estimate the surface temperature of the Sun. [2] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (d) Outline how the following quantities can, in principle, be determined from the spectrum of a star. (i) The elements present in its outer layers. [2] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... (ii) Its speed relative to the Earth. [2] ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... ..................................................................... 881-181 Turn over – 26 – N01/430/S(3) OPTION G — SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY G1. Two inertial observers, A and B, agree to compare their measurements of time. They each carry an accurate clock. During the experiment, A observes B to be moving at a constant velocity, v, as shown below. B A velocity = v at rest A and B observe two events. For the first event B measured a proper time of 6 seconds while A measured 10 seconds. [1] (a) What is meant by proper time? ......................................................................... ......................................................................... ......................................................................... (b) Calculate the time dilation factor, #, for B’s clock as observed by A. [1] ......................................................................... ......................................................................... .........................
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