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Unformatted text preview: · · . A. SPIV AKOVSKY· 'and V. DYACHKOV : . . .,·· CO.NVEYORS .· . and ~. . . · ... ': .... • .. . . . . . -~· ... ~·- . _- .. -. . : "R '. _ ':E•-;IT:: JJ-i· ' ~~.-~T';_E- . · D·- ·· .,-· . ,".· . l, ,.. .. ~ - , ~· ,; ,· ":,/' ~. . ., . '·. . . ...· . •. ·•. ·EQUIPMENT . . Translated .from theRussian by DON PE A C.E D.ANE;MANIS PUB L ts HERS · ~- M O.S.-C OW . . --- --- - ···-·····-·· -·. •/' ._ ...·.· / : ....~. • .-,,-., t-. TO THE READER Peace· Publishers would - be glad ".to have your _ o pinion regarding. this. 'book,'. its -. tra11slaUon1 . 'design ., and printing, arid to receive any suggestions from .you . Please write to· 2, Pervy Rlzhsky. Pereulok, Moscow, U.S.S.R. . ' . , .:\4hJ.:· "t\t~) ,' _:_ ( :-:.:t -: ·.: \:./t\jl Cft!!t~ .: :~f~{( Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ,\ <: . ( . ·:I : :v· -, .•.,:· .-, . r,_:_;, ·. ' . .. .. · ·, . . .. . . . ..... '··,_ ·- ( .:._._ ,· ...• a~'ci-/Po\ver fn:/c6ti\;eYing Machines'· :i11g_.Membei-\.) . ·:-:\ · -/ . · . ·, .,. C,':Resi'sfante ik i ~:~~ r~i~?t1~t:i;~tr:;iri t~ff~i~::~n~~ -and tI 8 :P~J)ynan~ic;'.Ph~hbmJna ,. • -z: .- • ,: .. witt~-. ·· .. • a Flexible · Pull~ - Motor Power ' . . :.~·.· .·· Drives· >~:/>::-< 30 . .·Cltain Conveyors · :'.:'.:·.:·:_·_·:_._\·_-. ._'1 :s_pe"ed . · .·an_ d. 'A_tce_ ler ation of the Chain , _:'.;:..:r pyriafoi_c Loads .on the Chain .. : :s:--E_qual.izirig - , .. _!3.~l-·;_: _.•,:~ '·:•,_.-:~·_.: •\;.:,•_:. :·-~_. ·•-.;:·_.•·:'_·-.: . L • , • 3i· ,':"_.' !'.·,·. ·,::,.·.;; . -:-,./-,):'~·,:;'"-~1 . 36 f.,.,,., :,.--·:-1 ... Conveying Machines . of the Component Parts · I nterrnedi ate Tensioning Devices or Take-ups Drive Unrts IV. Belt Conveyors A. General Description and Purpose B. Conveyors with Textile Belt 1. Geometry of Belt Conveyors 2. Parts. of Belt Conveyors 3·~ Calculation of Belt Conveyors ·' Ch apter .. .. .. .. '66 ·-.'.66.· '68 • . . . too · ; ::/)i-, . . :,~: :<-::L·.:,'.~·-.1i\{~;i'.idt} ....,;·.·,. . Conveyors ' ): <\·:(-·:\<ci1' apter . :.·.· · ' ~ ·. · ? , "A:. General :··.__·- .:C,: ... ' . ·· i\{I{~[ V. g: ~~~~~·~, P:;;i~• C~~:~;~~:• . . . , . , no ,• . :B. General .Purpose Conveyors , -. · _\-··:<. L; Parts of Flight Conveyors 119 120 120. L\/()}k::\:':):Q:::rubulat.: Contlnuous-Ilow ??f(}f; {{·>~'{;;< .'· . 'c ti a pt :' - . r : 1 134 • • : : :. • : • • • : :: ;· .... . .....• '. .,_ . • • . . .. . and A>\1-bucket. Conveyors •! • . • • . ... YI II. hapter · :JA;· c · -153 . . , 156 156 ; . ·.• : . 165 . .• . .. :Ch a p.t er. IX. Load-propelling _Conveyors . : :A.·.Generat. Description and Purpose . . . . . e. ··conveyors· with a. Flexible Pulling. Member . . } ' L Parts of .Load-propelling "·_conveyors . ', ·''·.·' ' :.• .. ·- .. ~ '· 197 .. •·, , X. , Car· er Platform .Conveyors : .· · A . .- Ma in -Types an <1 Purpose . . ·: : ; ·B'.-Vertical Runarounds . . . . L General Description . . . . .. : -~ . . . ~ : : . ::-2. Parts of Vertical Runarounds ,· '.', · 3::Ci:akulation- of Vertlcal. Runarounds : _... . . 168 • · .- 168 .• i ."· 171 · .: ·.· 188 .. ' 205 205 . ,-208'. •. Conveyors . . . .. .. •. .. . ·. 20~ .. 211 213 ::_ Ch apter- ·', ~·~;~~;: ~: - <~ /,··~· .- ~-- • 146 149 • 160 C/Cakulation of' Overhead Conveyors · . ·. · . · . · . D.<:Selective 'Twin Rail Overhead Conveyors · Rod Conveyors • / . Overhead ~on.veyorl·. · Load-.propelling · Swlng-tray Conveyors · .GeneralDescrtption and ·Pu1;pose .· . B. Parts. of. Overhead· .Conveyors ·. : ·. . . , .;:·· 2: · Calculation of Load-propelling ~ .. 143 • , • . 140 143 ~ : ~-. ... . B. Pivoted-bucket Conveyors · . .. : c. Swing-tray Conveyors ·. . · · ·c : • -,:·.,· .'.}--- . ... ' . - : - : C.... '' .~-' . . . . ,.. _ Flight 'Conveyors ' . . 138 : _ · .. -:; . : . VI I.· V-bucket~· Pivoted-bucket er· . . 12 1 . . . ... IJQ -~.: ..... .: . ·,. '. . . \'\,c~f;>;:c:,, Jlrtiii.ll1}:.·,,.-:·~Hf:t:C<.. :!iC:~n,~1nuoµ~flow .:g:fq~1-~y1~.t~on. orFlight f!ight- ~o.n~e~o? · :· Convey 01 s . • 113 1:16 119 .(~astin!( ~·.c~in~•: ~s~a'.a'.or~). ~tt1ft{?0 A'fib!:~:,•.t'~er~:r:l10~0%:r0;u;~o~;· · : \\'.?\(?>(<· . - .··.· · 1: (:?:.:f,,. . \t;:'{:'J'::t, ... . . Apron Conveyors Description and Purpose . .. . . B. 'Gener al Purpose Conveyors . . . . . . . Parts of Apron Conveyors . . . . • 2. Calculation of. Apron Conveyors '. :-· . ,. 216 .. 216 . . .. . .. . ... . .. . 217 217 224 225 . c. Horizontal' Run;·rounasO: . • ; •. -; I. General -Descrlption ·. . i , ·.-~• • 2. Parts of. Horizontal Runarounds· .: .. ·/ . . , •• .. ~ .• 3. Calculation of Horizontal't.Runarounds • • • .· •. : ... r XI. Bucket-, Arm-· and ~fwt!)g-tray F.levatrir~' . A. Bucket Elevators . : • • .. ·. .. . . . ·. : . . . . . . . . I. General Description and Purpose . . . . . • . 2. Charge and Discharge of the Buckets . . . . . . 3. Parts of Bucket Elevators . . • . . . . . . . . . 4. Calculation of Bucket Elevators . . . . .... . Arm Elevators . . . . .: C. Swing-tray Elevators Ch a pte , • • I • . . . . _ •.·: ,·.' - . . ..... -... --· . .... • . . ... .A 266. . . . . ; 266.' p te r · XI L. Screw Conveyors . . , . lDescrlptlon, and Punpose Purpose . ~on'veyors .,'. of: Screw Co,n\reyors .·: ;'... ·,t . ; •.. 269.· .· :··:·-~i) '. ·. . Calculation of. Sci·ef ;c(jnve'yofs . Vertical Screw Conv1=,yors · · . . ·269 _;·. <y-77- ~ --· -~ .. . 279 . . ., 279 -~·279 ; 279 . . .• and· Purpose . ; : . . of ,Pow.ere·d Ro Iler Conveyors . .' . ', Caktitation of Powered Ro Her •Conveyors . . . . '. . . .. t'e,r.,XIV. Oscillating and Vibrating Conveyors . , . . I Descrlption and Purpose . . ; . . . . . . ,B. 'Conveyors . with a Constant Load Pressure on the Trough.. . ·c'. Conveyors with a Changing Load "Pressure on. the Trough_.·, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conveyors . . 2. Vibrating Conveyors . . 1. 'Shaking er XV. Pneumatic Conveyors A. Main Types and. Purpose ... B. Bulk-handling Pneumatic Conveyors l. General Description . . . . . . . 2. · Parts of Pneumatic Conveyors . . 3. Calculation of Pneumatic Conveyors .. 28}'· ··-... Cha.pt .. < . • -, 312 . • . ; 314 . 314 . .. 317 •· • . 323 .; . ··• . .. ·~. Conveyors _. C:,:Calculat10n 1.{}i<::<\/i·'\/\. ·. of-Hydreulic Conveyors . . 340. :-:·-·',:f . _347 349353 357 Transport . XVII I, . Loaders 1fH:\·:;y,,,.,;: .. -, : ·A ·Main Types and Purpose ,. .,· ,: .,· { . ' .. . . . Power Shovels Unpowered Lift Trucks Powered Lift Trucks !· v.: . ·.. · • Ch apter XIX. , . ; . .. .. Auxiliary Equipment A: Hoppers and Their Mechanical Equipment 1. Hoppers 2. Hopper Gates 3. Feeders t • . · B.. Chutes ' L Feed. Chutes and Pipes 2. Ladders and Spiral Chutes . . .. ·,·:·. ·' . . ... .. .. ~ Counters . ' ' .. ' ' .. . • • . . .. '· .• . • . . . . . •. • . .. . .- _. . Industrial ..: ",~·': : ...... :. : \··c11 a pter XXI. Trends in Design A.· Conveying Machines and Industry B.· Trends. ,· .. . . 440 440· ·441: ,· . C H A p T E R I INTRODUCTION A. TYPES OF J_NDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT le wi ple .could. .· large quantities of meta s - and semi)H'1ry materials and finished articles; distri . works; .dlsposlng · of production waste, and conveying finis products'to loading areas·. for despatch to consumers. All these needs arecatered · for by industrial transport. Industrial transport. · ay>he. classified' as external and internal; · · Bxlernaltransport serves to convey raw materials, semi-fin roducts, fuel, main and auxiliary materials to the. production d ·'to despatch finished products and. production waste from al transport· includes conveyance by .r ail, ship, truck :an ane. · . Internal (interplant and· tnterjactoru) transport serves to d the loads received .arnong t,g_<:\,,;various shops and dep a . of the works, to take care of in-precess · movements and to' ,:vey finished products and production waste .to loading· ·a :despatch from the production site., Local· railways (wide arid row gauge), motor trucks, hoisting · and conveying ( cranes, conveyors, etc.), various 'hand trucks, tractors and. . ground-level transport facilities. are used for the conveyance . loads within the plant. ~·~.Depending on where it is utilized, internal: transport is into inter- and lntr ashop transport, '/.:·: :· -, r, !lin.'\}.':}: 1: :r, / Jjfl.,the ;Ca~e of a machine· building works from the preforming-to , .: :_../\~ the_ forming shop)._ shop to store. shop to dump. receiving lo . : \I _ -Plont sorting yard . ,,, s!iop store -, ·, .: ) ln-process. forg- . , - -· 8111/dmg reptnrs , 1(Jgs· storage -- .Foun(Jry shop -----~---------~---t In-process cast . Jn{Js storage - -- ,'··'.. Chips Machinmg shop store ;: Interim finished · partsstore .- . ii'~ '- . Assembly deportment Sawn. timber . Testing.station·· store. SidinQs tor sorting empties ; · . waste - ;- -: . _:x(: t:\-J;{.11S·\~;;,>F}gC: .. {· Ftowsheet ·of tntershop .transpor t facilities in .a mechanical engtneerlng f :~;t{:;'./t?\j'.;/ - • . . -. • . . . . . , plant rt.:L:ft.·:-/:rtoadiD-g·.:·~r.ea:~.· etc. An .exarnp le of an Internal. transport flow dia-.' ·.:·:,(.::-r::. ·'.· gram:of-/'a'_:machine building works. 'is depicted in Fig. ·1. - _ . . · - · . _. I ntrashop · transport serv_es · to transfer · loads between· depart_ merits within shops, stores, process - points and working -places.: · It also .serves . to .carry work· in 'process from one operation to· . a nether .. :A .nurnber ·.:o.f. oper ations · ( dressing, painting;' .assernbly, _ , .. . ;'... etc . ) .is often carried .out en route.: , · · . : . - · · ·. ·.··.· · . . lnfra"shop:Jfansport·is one'olthe .most Important fn i~ttors /production.: Conveying machines set the· pace· -in Ihe ·sep~rate<'dep artrnents . arid coordinate - it with that of other departments :_-and ;..the· works in general, .thus ensuring a predetermined steady· of production. . · _ .· , . .- .. · A study of· the principal and most extensively applied. inter·_·and ·intrashop conveying machines forms the subject of this· book. , B. CLASSIFICATION AND GHARACTERISTICS 'OF 'MATERIALS The type of' load handled and 'its physical and mechanical prop.:_.·_/ ·. ertles are the main factors which determine the type and designj features .of a. conveying machine and its· component parts.' . , _ · ,. · by Interplant transport are divided into unit "loads and bulk lo'ads.. · . _._ Unit loads:·i'riclu·de piece-goods usually counted by the number _ of pieces (fori_ example, machine - parts and assernb lies, moulding .boxes. etc.) -~·rid tared g·bods_ (boxes, bags, barrels, packaged items.. cont ai ners, .etc.) , and, also other. goods handled en. rnasse cornprising more or less . large-sized items of a definite .sha pe · (for. in . stance, ingots, pigs, building blocks, rolled beams, logs, etc.): - Unit loads are characterized by their overall dimenslons.vshape, '; · piece-weight, convenience of stacking or suspension. and· by speciflc . properties, .· if any. The latter Include temperature (.f or hot' · moulding .boxes or- castings)', explosiveness, ·inflammability, fra'~ .giltty, etc _ -. _ . _ · Bulk loads (rncderials.i include. various heap-loaded,· granular .· -:·arid -powder ejl.matertals (ore, coal, peat, moulding sand, sawdust: 1.-? • cement, ·etc.)'.''.',-;:{( . . . . . . j_ • cc•,, .. Bulk· loads a-re characterized by their physical · and mechariica 'properties such as lump-size ( distribution of its separate parti . according to size), bulk (heaped) and specific weight, · content; mobility of its particles.. angle. olYepose, abr asivity. specific properties. Let .us consider .each one of these pro ·· . Loads, handled r I .separ ately. · . · .. -. Lump-size. The· quantitative _ · . . · : ' , distribution of the particles. ... · bulk load, according to their sizes, is known as the gr anulometr composition or 'lump-stze of the load. The size of the particles· determined linearly- in millimetres. The largest linear dimenslon.. its diagonal a (Fig. 2)' ch ar acter izes the-particle and determines a number of parameters of conveyors and auxiliary equipment. · _ · To determine the lump-size of materials· containing particles': larger than 0.1 mm, they are consecutively screened throughla · number of screens of different mesh size. The gr anulometr!c com> · <c:>: ..•,, . ;·· \;~: .~ JjitJ:-:C:/{J:.{\n·:::::;_ .: ·';d~tert_J11n.ed by:.a.special n:ethod ba~ed o~ the d1ffe:ence 1_n the .speed_ · { } Jji( '. J·:\,- ._·: ·: with which particles of different size will settle. m water or air .v ··· ·/ 'q(f/:·_:·,.·:_ . . According to the uniformity .of the lumps in its composition, · 1 ./ l:IL~ll.- .. :-/·< a· bulk material is classed as sized or unsized. · · ·· - . ( \ }!·'!:.-.\:·:_-_·. . - A material in which the ratio 'of the size of the largest charac- <- ( :"· \l[.•.:J.,,·:·:·:,:.!::·;·,··,, '::teristic. p~rticle amax t.o .that .of .the smalle~t characteristic parti- ~:t ll[\)J}\\;-::· ·. _ cle ami?l is . below 2.5 ts consider ed as unsized. ·. ;- · · ·:· f_ ;:L '\? jl ~t\f vf <"' 1-,,f--,,r .. 1 • , a ' , l llll!;tf, : · . . . . j\f4:\<( .:t-::_<.: ., Fig. 2. Dimensions of. a bulk 'load · 0 1lr-:t%;~tt):ii'.:<-)(:.:. ·. , . ' . . .: . iicfi?f;i_\-:}:'.;_:'·· : . :· :In : . .'<· L::H . '.· •.. . · · ·):;l i.e., · more or less homogeneous ones- .. /})f . Sizedit materials · are characterized PY their :-._<(.,~ --sized·.· materials, 1!\:.' ;(;:f·- (/t<··~1!1:ax.:_, · qmi;1 -<.. ~_.5: lftt,Yr: I - ·. )'!:I ,parudi,,.: ', .• k:i.,J ~Ve{age lump-size, I.e., a' - aina•t an,111 • . . (l) >:ti unsized r:na.terials are characteri~ed by .the size .of their lar~esf.: -,~·.\.:~ i+tr:d;}/':/:.>.,- ·. c~ar~cterisl1c lump a'. If the weight- of a group of· lump~ ·sized_· /\.-,{ l:p_t}}'.'')/:=,\:. f1 om· 0.8 ama:\'. to amax ~xceeds 1 ~ per c~nt of the total weight of: <:} ..J :+r:: i\sfc(.::;':'<:-,t.he: sample, the: lump sized a,iuix .iaconsidered ·as the. largest char-: .: (( } !'f,.\ .;;.'.{{·:·~.{i:(;, ·}·{L:~st_eristic· one, i.g., a':. a,na~· But· if the weight,>9f.<th.is:.- group :}is;_ /}.\{' itKlttf})~~t{l-iF·t·les$.: than .: ~ 0 p~~ · cent ,o( the samp I~, the· 1 u.mp }tzed Ot_8 ama.~ i~, rtZ;,}Xf::'::\i{/>~·:SO.ns~_dered as the, largest char acterlstic one, 1;e., a._ .D.8_ amax· . <i ·· .. _;·).i\ f!s/:\)::;- :-· .·?t?>i ·: Table . Dlstrtbutlon . · ·- · of Buik -Loads i:·i· 1 '/ ., According · · · to Th_elr Particle ·Size -. : \ ; .. , . e •• .·. ':·. =': ... ·:. ·. . Large-lumped .· ·>-)6H>· · . . . ·,-.. .- - - . .. ··;·:_:.x.·· ·.· .. ~\.\ -~ . . Me dfum-lurnped Srna Il-Iurnped ·· ·· Granular · · . ' · ·._- Powdered . . . //.~·:: ·~. -~f~-).~~/:i:; l•'ffi,~io-ml<niir.n, n ·.'.: • .. Load group . •··.·· .. .Slae · of largest characler°lstlc particle a', mm_ . over 160 · 60 to 160 10 to 60 · · 0.5 to 10 below 0.5. · . :a . According . to the size of their . particles, bulk materials . 'classed as large-,i __medium- and· small-sized' lump,,°' granular- 'of .powdered (Table I). . . . . . .. The lump-size of. bulk materials . must be taken into consideration when the _dimensions of the load-carrying members. cori-: veying machines and sizes of· the outlets of bins, hoppers ah ·. chutes are determined. · . Bulk weight and specific weight .. The bulk or heaped weight ·'Y , is the weight of the material per: Lt nit of volume in· bulk. It usually measured in . tons .per cubic metre (or kg per litre}," sometimes in kg. per cubic· metre. The bulk weight of granular and , · powdered materials is usually determined with ·_ ,a special device (Fig.' 3) consisting of 'contajner 1 of a definite given volume (usually -l ·to 3 litres); rod· 2 attached to the container and revolving frame 3 secured on rod 2. The larger the lump-size of the materi a I, the larger should be, .the volume of the container. To determine the bulk or _weight of a material, it is poured into the container through the frame until the container is Iull. A turn of. the frame removes excess material and leaves the. container "Iull to · · the . rim. -. The container is now · weighed. · . . The: ·bulk . .· weight is determined _..,,. as the· net weight Of the .matertal in .the container-relative to the volume Fig .. 3. . . Contain~r ..-. . serving /t~i- it occupies. A distinction is . made determine the 'bulk weight of · between the bulk welgh( -0L: :a,. -ma-,- .-. ': ~.Jree.,flowing, matertal..: .. .: . .tefial . under aerated 'V- 'and under . . . ._ , packed conditions- fYpacked· A 'bulk load will· pack when subj .. tojmlforrri static or dynamic: ·compression or shaking: The · of the weight of. a material. packed to its weight before pa ·_ is known as the packing coefficient whose value varies.for ent bulk loads from 1.05 to 1.52. A gradation of bulk materi . according to ·their bulk weights· is :given in· Table 2-. The bulk.' weights of the most extensively handled materials are contained in Table 3. The bulk weight of a material is- an important parain~eter when the capacity of a conveying machine and the pressure : 0 ,;.,'c',·,···-· .. ,:·, on the walls and outlets of J1op pers Is calcula t_ed. · , ·. Table- 2. , . i::·i:·,.\:.:c..;:;-.',,. . . . .. r t'i p1stributfon.,of .Bulk Loads According 'to Thefr Bulk Weight . . .. ., W.eight group· . .. . . . . · Bulk- weight V, Mater lal . tons per cu m · ( · ,.. . " ·~ · .:» · Light . · Medi.um· · ~ Heavy Very heavy up. to 0.6 from 0.6· to 1.1 from 1.1 -to 2.0 over 2.0 -· · Sawdust, peat; coke . Wheat, 'Tye, coal, slag. Sand, gravel; ore _ Iron ore, cobble stones ·,,,: .. · . ·.. }· weight of. a material ·is. t~1e we1~hL.o!, 1ts.·parhcle~i: >-):'\; f?}]t\'.)}~!;~}/.\J,;<.ctned ~t -~ temp_~.rature of 10~ to :105~ C to constant :,~~1ght · r.ela-. .::LL t.1f··=~v .4\,tt~' .i.{til..~;h, '.::/.<l· '.}.\)f· .}• · /itt,. th~.·. volume of wate. r dis.pl·a· ced by them. The'. s.p.ecJ~c.:~etgh_t .: i\,·:·\·\.·:,. }?.'.fe.,mto_ctt~rrals m~st · be ta~en '.--.:int~ ··:a~_c_ou?t .: when. _ pneumatic . and ._ii,(' ittt:::Pill};ti:';\,::hYdrauhc materials handling .equipment rs ·. calculated. . .· ·. ; _ ·_\/ ifJ{!}~f}{~}t/: :: !he speoific >: ( .·.'.·? -~ 'ji:WS , ' , :, iig. ·4. Nat~ral slope .~suin~d Ji,\,;ifi'.' . ;. . '~f!11 e{ o!'e:-.i~ri~~~tal"'.stt,~~t! ·. . Fig. 5. oete;inlnatlon angl~ ~f the · of re~~r~nt~th a . hollow ·. . !{}l~P·f~: . r (, F 'l . ~o~ilit~ Of. the· particles and a~gie,101' repose. ~hen a Joos~ }~: ,l}/-:\\1,?\'~\-'.t11a.t~n~l {bulk load) unobstructedly spills on a horizontal plane,.·:·>?( slope, th~· angle. of, \\rhic~ with -th,e.· .horizontal is . L:/\/(\'.'.'L},'l,ts.ang\e of rep~se cp ·(Fig. 4). The magnitude ofangle cp depends ,._;(~1 l(:{:'./}.i);:{\6n>J!1~ ·tnut~al' rnohility qf the particles: the larger their mobility~_· · :.. /f ::.:.;:::(: :,:,·.·.the smaller is angl~·cp., · , . · .· ·\if L~- >} -'. ·. · .The angle of . repose of. bulk materials may be static cp · of dy· L.{·: ._namic (l)dyn·. (l)d~n is approximately 0.7 cp. . -1.) '· >.-~he static angle of- repose can· be determined with various sirn- : '.,) . ple devices, a hollow cylinder.: for example (Fig. 5). The material . -: (t) ·, :·t hf~:~i)~it);f:?;f!f\f~SUlTieS a isfilledJnto the hollow cylinder ·and ·when the latter is carefully.' .. . raised, t~e material . po ors out. and forms a cone on the horizo~ta.1\·, . :; . . :';Uef ;'·.. ._·:f~ ,:.t}\ : ; . : :. . ;. . . . .. - : -:. ~ '. . - ,·.-· :\+; : ·. ~-- : . . ". - .' .· . . .. pporting surf ace. The angle of .th~, generatrlx _ ~f ·the - cone angle - of static rt pose. The.angle of repose · is measured- _ -- , angle gauges of· different type. The dynamic angle of repose Q)d~~ is obtained when the horizontal supporting surf ace _vibrates ver. tically. _ _ -.: •. - ·The coefficient of friction of a bulk material on steel, wood, concrete, rubberized Iabric; etc., must be taken' into account conveying machines and auxiliary. equipment are - designed. 'the .,> Iriction factor determines the angle of inclination of the walls .: · and ribs of hoppers,. funnels and. transfer chutes and also the->_ when: ·- Table 3 - .' Bulk -Weight, Angles· of Repose, and Friction Factors . of Bulk Materials · · ... , (approximate values) · _Angle ot.repose, 0 • deg · ·· tons - per ...
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  • Fall '19
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