Unit III Lecture Notes Outline

Unit III Lecture Notes Outline - V A THE RESPIRATORY...

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V. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (Chapter 22) A. Organs 1. Nose a. Anatomy -pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells with many goblet cells (secretes mucus to humidify) and capillaries b. Physiology 1) Air Conditioning Functions: a) Warmed b) Humidified c) Filtered 2. Pharynx a. Nasopharynx = upper portion of pharynx (__________openings) ________________________ epith. b. Oropharynx = middle portion of pharynx (_________ opening, __________) ___________________ epith. c. Laryngopharynx = lowest portion of pharynx ___________________ epith. 3. Larynx [voice box] a. Anatomy 1) Three single pieces of cartilage: a) Thyroid cartilage [Adam’s Apple] b) Epiglottic cartilage [epiglottis] c) Cricoid cartilage 2) Three pairs of cartilage: a) Arytenoid cartilage b) Corniculate cartilage c) Cuneiform cartilage 3) Pseudostratified epithelial cells, basal cells, goblet cells b. Voice Production (Vocalization) 1) Phonation - each vocal cord is stretched between the thyroid cart. and an arytenoids cart. - pitch a) stretch/relax vocal cords b) change shape & mass of vocal cords 2) Articulation (achieved by __________________________)
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- resonators(____________________________) 4. Trachea [windpipe] - ___________________ciliated columnar epithelium - ___________ incomplete cart. rings of hyaline cart. - smooth muscle and elastic connect. tiss. - carina 5. Bronchi a. Primary Bronchi b. Secondary Bronchi right lung has____ lobes left lung has____ lobes c. Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi right left 5 5 bronchial tree - cart. rings_______________ - smooth muscle _________________ - pseudostrat. cil. col. _________________ 6. Lungs a. Serous Membranes: Pleural Membrane 1) Parietal pleura = outer layer 2) Visceral pleura = inner layer 3) Pleural cavity = the space between the pleural membranes and is lubricated with fluid that allows them to slide b. Gross Anatomy c. Lobes and Fissures -oblique fissure (________) -horizontal fissure (________) -superior lobe and inferior lobe (________) -superior, middle, and inferior lobes (________) d. Bronchiopulmonary segments - terminal bronchioles – __________ bronchioles – ___________ducts – ___________sacs – alveoli (300 mill) Lobules (within each _________ are __________ that are
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visible with the naked eye and each has large _____________ and its branches) e. Alveolar-Capillary (Respiratory) Membrane - diffusion occurs across this membrane and consists of: 1) squamous epithelial wall 2) epithelial basement membrane 3) capillary basement membrane 4) capillary endothelial cells f. Blood Supply 1) pulmonary circ. (_____ vol., _____ press.) -___arteries -___veins 2) bronchial circ. (____ vol., _____ press.) (provides systemic blood to lungs) B. Respiration 1. Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing) a. Inspiration or inhalation - Boyle’s Law = if the size of the container is decreased, then the pressure in the container is increased and vice versa. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 = Boyle’s Law (ideal gas law) (initial) (resultant) F = ΔP general gas law = P = nRT R vol. (vol. changes leads to press. changes which lead to flow of gases to equalize the press.) 1) Basic Mechanisms of Lung Expansion and Contraction Muscles of inspiration: -__________ = normal/quiet breathing -costal breathing = shallow (chest) breathing -diaphragmatic breathing = deep (abdominal) breathing 2) Respiratory Pressures - ________________ --- 756 to 754 mm Hg (-4 mm Hg.) - ________________________________ 760 to 758 mmHg.) - _________________ 760 mm Hg.
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