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Unformatted text preview: Ch.14-Adolescence- 11-19 years.-Early and late adolescence- early is child to adolescent and late is adolescent to adult.-Urbanization- led to social reforms-Historically urbanization led to social and legal reforms that contribute to the social acceptance. (child labor laws removed children from workplaces, criminal laws treated juveniles differently, mandatory public education)-culturally its different everywhere. Many adolescents undergo initiations, or rights of passage, that mark their new status and roles within their community. Nature of rights varies across cultures. Physical and sexual development-hormonal influences- timing differences, girls are earlier than guys-brain development-prefrontal cortex, involved in the organization and planning of behavior and the anticipation of future of events. Damage in this part people have little concern for past and future. Limbic system-, regulation of emotional behaviors and sexuality and is involved in the regulation of memory. Amygdala is in this part. Grows quickly in response to testosterone and involved with feelings of fear and anger. Boys change more here. Can contribute to cognitive development and the brain releases more chemicals-Physical changes for boys and girls Girls- growth spirt around 10 years, slows down with menarche-onset of menstrual cycle, adult height and weight by age 15-16, Boys- growth spirt around 12 years, adult height and weight by age 17-18, 4 inches per year during spirt, Hand, feet, head, and nose grow more quickly, grow from head up Puberty- milestone reached when a person becomes sexually able to have children. Pubescence- time during which sexual maturation is taking place Primary sex characteristics- physical features directly related to reproduction directly related to testies, penis, ovaries Secondary sex characteristics- features that are outward manifestations of sexual development such as breasts, facial and body hair, and adult body shape. Gonadotropins- hormones that travel to the brain, carrying messages about changes in the body.-Environmental influences determines early and late development, two powerful ones are general health and nutrition,girls who exercise a lot tend to have delayed puberty. Aequate nutrition may enter puberty earlier. Early maturing boys- athletes, older, behavioral problems, popularity Late maturing boys- short, thin, dissatisfaction Early maturing girls- 4 years, risk eating disorders, older friends Late maturing girls- same time as early maturing boys Pms- moodyness, head and back aches-health and safety Physical fitness- state of well being that allows one to function effectively without undue fatigue. Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa- usually in women, eat very little but believe they are fat....
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