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# Chapter 18 - COLLEGE PHYSICS Part II PHY 2054C SECTION 0001...

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COLLEGE PHYSICS, Part II PHY 2054C, SECTION 0001; MWF 8:30-9:20 AM MAP 260 Instructor: Suren A. Tatulian Associate Professor Dept. of Physics, UCF Office hrs.: MWF 9:30 – 10:30 AM (or by appointment) Office: PS 456 [email protected]

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Chapter 18: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD 1. Electric Charge 2. Conductors and Insulators 3. Conservation and Quantization of Charge 4. Coulomb’s Law 5. Electric Field and Electric Force 6. Calculating Electric Fields 7. Electric Field Lines 8. Gauss’s Law and Field Calculations 9. Charges on Conductors COLLEGE PHYSICS, Part II
ELECTRIC CHARGE Electrostatic interactions are interactions between static electric charges. They were discovered by ancient Greeks, who observed that when amber is rubbed against fur it can attract small objects. The word electric derives from the Greek word elektron ( ηλεκτ ρον ), meaning amber . Electric charge is a property of some subatomic particles. There are two kinds of electric charge, negative and positive . By convention, electrons have a charge of −1 , and protons have the opposite charge of +1 . When two objects are rubbed against each other, the charge is not created but is just transferred from one object to the other. The total charge within the system of the two objects is conserved .

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Ordinary matter is composed of atoms . Atoms are composed of a nucleus and electrons orbiting around the nucleus. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons . Neutrons are believed to result from fusion of an electron and a proton; hence they have larger mass than the protons. They do not possess any apparent electrostatic charge, so in the electrostatic sense they are neutral particles (under certain conditions neutrons behave like negatively charged particles). The approximate size of a medium-sized atom is 10 -10 m, or one Ångström (1 Å), and the size of a nucleus is ~ 10 -15 m.
A neutral atom A cation (positively charged) An anion (negatively charged) Anions and cations are the two types of ions. The process of gaining or losing excess charge is called ionization, which can occur via addition or removal of electrons or protons to individual atoms or molecules. Addition or removal of protons is also known as protonation and deprotonation.

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CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS Conductors (e.g., copper) are able to conduct electric charge, while insulators (e.g., rubber) are not. Most metals are conductors, and most nonmetals are insulators. There are also semiconductors that are neither good conductors nor good insulators. The electric current in conductors is based on movement of the outer electrons under the action of voltage (outer electrons are loosely connected to the nucleus). The atomic structure of the insulators is such that all electrons are tightly connected to the nucleus and therefore cannot be easily dissociated.
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Chapter 18 - COLLEGE PHYSICS Part II PHY 2054C SECTION 0001...

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