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International Relations

International Relations - The Nature of the International...

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The Nature of the International System *international system: world evolving toward nation-state corporation trough institutions *globalization: expand the reach of power relations across regions and continents *the world as anarchy: most power makes the rules *the world as institutionalizing: countries work together for a common goal *DP as hierarchy: democracy “President Congress” *DP: central authority; can enforce laws; centralization of power *IP: no central authority; world anarchic because every nation state is sovereign self-reliance But we do have treaties to help the relationship of nation states; -powerful states create an informal central authority CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION AND FORCE *DP: regulated conflict through political and legal processes; force is illegitimate except by authorized officials *IP: unregulated conflict; resort to self-reliance the use of force. Win the war your use of forces was legitimate; powerful make rules for resolving conflict, rules to create justice, trend toward negotiation not violence *two views anarchy vs. institutions might makes right or the world is evoloving toward nation-state cooperation through institutions EVOLUTION OF THE INT’L SYSTEM: * Age of Empires *Europeans start to colonize the world *imperialism: go into a part of the world and take over and colonize them; impose beliefs *Europeans colonize Africa *the industrial revolution helped Europe’s economy boost *popular sovereignty vs. monarchies CREATION OF NATION-STATE SYSTEM
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*Holy Roman Empire-Catholic church that ruled the gov’t; *Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther): A social movement in reaction to the wide spread perception that the Catholic Church had become corrupt ad had lost its moral compass. - Nationalism: various royal people who were not happy and wanted independence began to reject the empire *Thirty years war (1618WWII)-revolt against HRE; war fought over religious conflict; political leaders were enforcing a particular religion and the people did not agree (HRE: Austria Spain and France vs. German areas, Sweden, and Denmark) either Begin of nation state system (1648): *Peace of Westaphalia: the leaders got together and war had done nothing agree that their own nation would be sovereign (rejected empire authority); each nation had their own territorial entity; sovereign state-power in the hands of the states - National self-determination: the right/desire of distinct national groups to become states and to rule themselves. *Napoleon’s challenge: tried to conquer all of Europe; went into Russia and realized
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