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L#2-Basics of Power Transmission and Distribution

L#2-Basics of Power Transmission and Distribution - Basics...

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Basics of Power Transmission and Distribution Masoud Fathizadeh, PhD, PE Department of Engineering Technology Purdue Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323
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Power Transmission & Distribution Future electricity scenario Generation & distribution Phase of electricity Active and reactive power Power factor correction Electrical load management Electrical billing mechanisms Transformers
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General Electricity Scenario Development can be measured by a nation‟s electricity consumption Electricity usage is divided into: a) Industrial b) Commercial and residential c) Agriculture and irrigation Electricity important input for industry
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International Energy Agency predicts for 2030 78% of population in developing countries has access to electricity 1.4 billion people no access 665 billion US$ needed to overcome this
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Generation & Distribution Generator 10.6 KV GT 220 KV Step down transformer Distribution Power plant Transmission system Distribution system
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Generation & Distribution AC generators (“alternators”) generate electricity Electricity generated at 9-13 KV Power generated from 67.5 to 1000 MW Power stations: generating transformers (GTs) to increase voltage to 132-400 KV Substations: step-down transformers to reduce voltage before distribution
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Generation & Distribution Electricity is mostly generated by AC generators called “alternators” in thermal, hydro or nuclear power plants at 50 or 60 cycles per second. Electricity is typically generated at about 9 to 13 KV at the generator terminal. The power generated by one generator (also termed as UNIT) is in the range of 67.5 MW, 110 MW, 220 MW, and 500 MW, although 1000 MW generators also exist. Higher MW rating of generation capacity is preferred because of less auxiliary power consumption and other operation & maintenance cost. Electricity must be generated when it is needed since electricity cannot be stored. All power stations have generating transformers (GTs) that increase the voltage to extra high voltages (EHV, e.g. 132 KV, 220 KV, 400 KV) prior to transmission. Similarly, sub-stations have step-down transformers, which reduce the voltage for distribution to industrial, commercial and residential users through distribution lines. There is no difference between a transmission line and a distribution line except for the voltage level and power handling capability. Transmission lines operate at EHV and are usually capable of transmitting large quantities of electric energy over great distances. Distribution lines carry limited quantities of power at a lower voltage over shorter distances.
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Generation & Distribution Benefits of high voltage transmission Less voltage drop: good voltage regulation Less power loss: high transmission efficiency Smaller conductor: lower costs
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Generation & Distribution Less voltage drop: Voltage drops in transmission/distribution lines are dependent on the resistance, reactance and length of the line, and the current drawn. For the same quantity
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