LessonNo1ChemistryFall2010

LessonNo1ChemistryFall2010 - Physiology BIO 240 Lecture No....

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Unformatted text preview: Physiology BIO 240 Lecture No. 1 Chemistry Overview Fall 2010 Dr. Ana M Jimenez Thinking About Matter Occupies space, Is made up of elements also called atoms , Measured in units called grams (g). Is mass and weight the same thing? What size pants do you wear? (Mass) How much do you weight? (Gravitational pull) If you went to the moon, which would change? Element or Atom Each element is composed of subatomic particles: Proton (p+): found in atomic nucleus, has positive charge (+). Neutron (n0): found in atomic nucleus, has no charge. Electron (e-): orbits atomic nucleus, has negative charge (-). There are 91 naturally occurring elements (on earth) 24 of these are found in organisms that are or were once alive. Smallest particle of matter Each element has unique chemical properties. Periodic Table of the Elements Elements within a column have similar chemical reactivity Electron Shells (Energy Levels) Electrons orbit the atomic nucleus forming a 3-dimentional cloud. The octet rule : States that only 8 electrons fit in each shell, Except the 1 st shell in which only 2 can fit. Valance shell : Outermost shell responsible for allowing chemical bonding between atoms, Its stable with 8 electrons (if not, it will seek electrons from other atoms). What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass? What subatomic particles determine atomic number ? What subatomic particles determine atomic mass ? Make sure to memorize the atomic number and atomic mass, of H, C, N, O, Na, Cl, K atoms. Note that the human body consists primarily of hydrogen (H), Carbon (C) and Oxygen (O). What is the formula for water? Human body is made up of 60% by weight of free (liquid water) Naturally occurring atoms that have different number of neutrons, but are chemically identical to each other are called Isotopes , Examples are: Hydrogen (H) isotopes: Most abundant Hydrogen (H 1 ): has 1 p+, and NO n0 Less abundant ones have 1 p+, and 1 n0 (H 2 ) called Deuterium (or heavy water), or 1 p+, and 2 n0 (H 3 ) called Tritium . Carbon (C) isotopes: Most abundant C 12 (6 p+ 6 n0), Less abundant C 13 (6 p+ 7 n0), Even less abundant C 14 (6 p+ 8 n0). Chorine (Cl) isotopes: Most abundant Cl 35 (17 p+ 18 n0). Ions Some naturally occurring atoms are not stable when neutral and they exist as charged particles called ions , Unstable atoms may gain or loose electrons from outermost shell and become charged: Positive Ions (Cations): atoms that lose electron(s), have more p+ than e-. Ex. Sodium atom (Na) exists as Na + , Negative Ions (Anions): atoms that gain electron(s), have more e- than p+, Ex. Chlorine atom (Cl) exists as Cl- Electrolytes are Dissolved Salts Atoms that become ions (ionize) when placed in H 2 O are called electrolytes , Electrolytes carry electric charge, Can form salts when dehydrated by forming ionic...
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 240 taught by Professor Anamjimenez during the Fall '10 term at Barry Univesity.

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LessonNo1ChemistryFall2010 - Physiology BIO 240 Lecture No....

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