LessonNo12RespiratoryPhysiologyIFall10

LessonNo12RespiratoryPhysiologyIFall10 - Physiology BIO 240...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Physiology BIO 240 Lecture No. 12 Respiratory Physiology Fall 2010 Dr. Ana M Jimenez
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Thinking About Breathing! Why do I have to breath more air when I am exercising? What part of the nervous system controls breathing rate? What happens if I hold my breath?
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Review- pulmonary anatomy
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Fig. 22.10 There are 32 generations (branchings) of bronchi that conduct air to the respiratory zone Respiratory Zone Gas Exchange Respiratory bronchi and alveoli are thin enough to allow O2 and CO2 (gases) to diffuse from lungs to blood.
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Spirometer Mechanical spirometer but principles are the same with the computerized/digital transducers or other devices.
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Pulmonary Volumes Measured with a spirometer are: ( These are average numbers) Tidal Volume (TV): 500 ml Amount of air exchanged in a ‘ quite inspiration Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): 3000 ml Amount of air inspired after a quite inspiration Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): 1100 ml Amount of air expired after a quite expiration Residual Volume (RV): 1200 ml Air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration
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IRV is more than ERV because of lung/alveolar elasticity that allows alveoli to accommodate more air.
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Pulmonary Capacities Capacities calculated from measured volumes: (These are average numbers in the middle of the clinical range) Vital Capacity (VC) – 4800 mL TV + IRV + ERV Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – 3600 mL TV + IRV Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)–2400 mL ERV + RV Total Lung Capacity (TLC) - 6000 mL All volumes
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Forced Expiratory Volume Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Such as Asthma show reduced FEV, it is more difficult to air to flow
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Type I Alveolar Cell – Simple squamous epithelium functions in gas exchange Type II Alveolar Cell – secrete surfactant Alveoli surrounded by pulmonary capillaries, allowing efficient gas exchange between the air and the blood.
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Boyle’s Law: Gas pressure (Pgas) is inversely proportional to its volume (Vgas) When Temperature (T) is constant Meaning: ↑Pgas=↓Vgas or ↓Pgas=↑Vgas. Lungs can change Vgas; therefore can change Pgas.
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Charles’s Law: Vgas is proportional to its temperature Meaning ↓Vgas =↓Togas or ↑Vgas=↑Togas. Lungs raise Temperature of gas which increases Vgas.
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Dalton’s Law: Total pressure of gas mixture = sum of its individual pressures Meaning : Gas pressure (atmosphere) is the summation of the partial pressures of the different gases in it, such as P O 2 + P CO 2 + N2, etc.
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Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level Partial Pressure of a gas is determined by its concentration and the total pressure
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Expiration Physical Laws - determine the direction of air movement into or out of lungs, primarily dependent on thoracic volume Air moves from high pressure P1 to low pressure P2 Why do your lungs not collapse like balloons during expiration? Intrapleural pressure (between parietal and
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LessonNo12RespiratoryPhysiologyIFall10 - Physiology BIO 240...

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