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foliation_lineation - I Introduction A Rock Fabric =...

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85 I. Introduction A. Rock Fabric = secondary planar and linear penetrative structures associated with strain. B. Foliation: homogeneously distributed planar structure in rock 1. examples a. sedimentary bedding b. imbricate pebbles in conglomerate c. schistose foliation with parallel alignment of platy phyllosilicates d. slaty cleavage e. gneissic banding C. Lineation: homogeneously distributed linear structure 1. surficial lineations: linear features on discrete surfaces only a. slickenlines on fault b. groove marks on sedimentary bedding plane 2. penetratitive: linear features occur throughout the body of rock a. hinge lines of crenulations in foliation b. preferred alignment of elongate minerals D. Primary vs. secondary features 1. primary: occur as result of sedimentary or igneous process of rock formation 2. secondary: originate as result of tectonic deformation or metamorphism E. Other terms 1. S-surfaces: penetrative planar features designated as S1, S2, etc. 2. Rock cleavage: tendency for rock to break along surfaces of weakness a. cleavage is a type of foliation in terms of rocks 3. banding: compositional zonation in rocks 4. Structural domains: units of rock with similar structural characteristics 5. Foliation morphology a. spaced - foliations spaced at 10 um or more b. continuous - fine, closely spaced foliation, < 10 um spacing.
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