intro - Structural Geology Introduction/Review of Basic...

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2 Structural Geology Introduction/Review of Basic Principles I. Introduction A. Definitions 1. Geology- study of lithospheric portion of the earth and its interaction with the biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere 2. Structural Geology- study of the architecture of rocks as related to deformation. a. Structure = Latin Struere - to build b. Study of the architecture of the Earth's crust (1) Architecture = form, symmetry, geometry and the elegance of the components of the Earth's crust on all scales. c. Rock Mechanics (Science) = strength and mechanical properties of crustal materials, both now and at the time they were formed and deformed. 3. Tectonics (Greek Tektos - builder) a. Study of the forces and motion that result in rock deformation and structure b. Tectonic Deformation of Rock (1) Rigid Body Translation- transportation without any permanent change in size and shape (2) Deformation - permanent change in the size and shape of rock by breaking or flow. (a) Brittle Deformation- brittle fracture and cracking of rocks i) low temperature, low pressure (b) Ductile Deformation- flowage and solid-state change of shape i) high temps, high pressure, but below melting point of rock. B. Goal of Structural Geologist 1. To interpret and define, on the basis of scientific data, crustal dynamics. a. Complex interaction of natural elements
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b. Large-scale in both time and space c. Large time scale = "non-repeatable" experiments 2. Geologic Reconstruction a. Time is the limiting factor (1) slow rates of process, very large scale b. Solving jig-saw puzzle (1) no picture on cover of box (2) some pieces may be missing? (3) Geologists reconstruct the picture with limited data and the complicating factor of time C. Scientific Method 1. Observations of Nature 2. Hypothesis Construction: I.D. Relationships in Nature 3. Experimentation, Hypothesis Testing, More Observation 4. Accept or Reject Hypothesis 5. Creation of Model to Explain Observations 6. Further Model Testing 7. Accept or Reject Model as Proven Theory - Science works by formulating observation-based models that can be tested by postdiction and prediction, then refined and tested again. The game is endless. D. Goals of This Course 1. To learn the terms and concepts of structural geology 2. To fine-tune your skills of observation and conclusion 3. To orient rock structures in 4-dimensions of space and time 4. To learn about processes of rock deformation 5. To develop your cognitive skills (i.e. thinking!!) II. Approaches to Structural Geology A. Models of Analysis 1. Geometric Model of deformation a. 3d interp. of form and orientation of struct b. based on data obtained from field studies (mapping, geophysical data) c. represented by cross sections and maps. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 406 taught by Professor Taylor during the Spring '11 term at Western Oregon University.

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intro - Structural Geology Introduction/Review of Basic...

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