practice_questions - Structural Geology Review Questions...

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1 Structural Geology – Review Questions and Practice Exam Short Answer Definition (use drawings where necessary) 13. Slickensides (3 pts) 14. En echelon fractures (3 pts) 15. Vein (3 pts) 16. Normal Fault (3 pts) 17. Thrust Fault (3 pts) 18. Cataclasis (3 pts) 19. Listric (3 pts) 20. Graben (3 pts) 1. What is structural geology? What are the essential questions that are asked in this scientific specialty? (5 Pts) 2. Explain the statement that "structural systems commonly display fractal behavior". (5 pts)
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2 3. Discuss, with examples, the difference between primary and secondary rock structure (examples are required). (5 pts) 4. What is the difference between "stress" and "strain"? (5 Pts) 5. Differentiate between Mode I, II and III fractures (drawings are required). (6 Pts) 6. In each of the map sketches below, draw a line showing the anticipated strike of the mode I fractures that would likely develop. (5 Pts) 7. In each of the cross-sections below, draw arrows on each side of the faults to show the relative sense of displacement. (5 pts) 8. Discuss the net stratigraphic effect commonly produced by a thrust fault (a diagram is required) (5 Pts) 9. List 5 pieces of evidence commonly used to identify faults in the field. (5 Pts) 10. Draw and label a diagram depicting the difference between synthetic and antithetic faults. (5 Pts)
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3 11. Draw and label a geologic map depicting the difference between sinistral and dextral wrench faults. (5 Pts) Lecture Part I. Short Answer: define the following terms using 1-2 sentences and diagrams where appropriate (remember a picture is worth a thousand words) (2 pts each x 11 = 22 pts total). 1. Cylindrical fold- 2. Overturned anticline 3. Monocline 4. Dip isogon 5. Kink fold 6. Penetrative Rock Fabric 7. Crenulation 8. Boudinage 9. Force 10. Stress 11. Negative normal stress
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4. List three geometric elements that can be used to describe fold patterns in rock. (3 pts) 5. Compare and contrast between ductile deformation and brittle deformation (discuss processes and products of each). (3 pts) 6. Discuss the difference in meaning that is implied between the terms "antiform" and "anticline". Diagrams are required. (3 pts) 7. What are the two primary geometric components that form the basis for Ramsay's fold classification scheme? (2 Pts) 8. Discuss the difference between the fold processes of "bending" and "buckling". (4 pts) 9. Discuss the difference between flexure slip folding and flow folding processes. (2pts) A. What is the difference between a similar and parallel fold (Ramsay's fold type 2 and 1B respectively)? (2 Pts) B. Which type of the above fold processes and fold types would be dominant in the deformation of a shale layer vs. a sandstone layer? AND WHY? (2 Pts)
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practice_questions - Structural Geology Review Questions...

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