375.Lec2Fall2011StudentPDF

375.Lec2Fall2011StudentPDF - 8/15/11


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Unformatted text preview: 8/15/11
 2.
Knowing
the
“Self”
and
Cri:cal
 Thinking
 “Know
Thyself”
 •  Oracle
at
Delphi
almost
2,000
years
ago
 •  Heraclitus,
Pythagoras,
and
Socrates
among
 ancient
Greek
philosophers
 •  The
“examined
life”
and
“self‐awareness”
 among
contemporary
philosophers
and
 psychologists
 •  Perhaps
a
uniquely
human
ac:vity:
 contempla:on
of
“self”
and
rela:onship
to
the
 world
 Why
is
this
such
a
difficult
task?
 •  Bipar:te
division
into
conscious
and
 unconscious
processes
(Wilson)‐‐‐
focus
of
 today’s
lecture
 •  “Flawed
self‐assessment”
(Dunning
at
al)‐‐‐ later
in
semester
 1
 8/15/11
 Knowing
the
Conscious
and
the
 Unconscious
 •  Hiking
the
Appalachian
Trail;
hiking
the
 Cotswolds
 •  Argument
by
metaphor
and
analogy
 •  Naviga:ng
the
conscious
self
is
like
hiking
the
 Appalachian
Trail
 •  Naviga:ng
the
unconscious
self
is
like
hiking
 the
Cotswolds
 •  Must
see
differently,
use
different
informa:on,
 and
process
that
informa:on
differently
 •  

 The
Adap:ve
Unconscious
 •  Discovering
the
Adap2ve
Unconscious
(T.
D.
Wilson,
 2002)
 •  Principles
of
“personality”
that
we
will
follow
throughout
 the
semester:
 


>
Interac:ve
conscious
and
unconscious
systems
that
 comprise
what
we
refer
to
as
one’s
“personality”
 


>
The
two
can
yield
different
pictures
of
who
the
person
is
 


>
Knowing
the
“self”
requires
knowledge
of
both
 conscious
and
unconscious
aspects
 


>
Discrepancy
between
the
two
systems
associated
with
 greater
unhappiness‐‐‐
hence
the
age‐old
injunc:on
to
 “know
thyself”
 2
 8/15/11
 Conscious‐unconscious
dis:nc:on
 •  Conscious:
 




>
Available
to
awareness
 




>
“Slow”
 




>
Deliberate
 




>
Subject
to
mul:ple
sources
of
distor:on
but

 




>
Useful
for
changing
behavior,
collec:ng
 informa:on,
and
evalua:ng
evidence

 



>
Self‐
and
other
reports;
behavior
counts:
 ques:onnaires,
surveys,
checklists
 Example
of
Conscious
Self
 •  •  •  •  •  Ques:onnaire
completed
in
class

 Distribu:on
of
scores
 Name
for
trait:
class

 Predic:ons:
class
 Note
bene:
this
is
all
a
product
of
our
 conscious
answering
of
ques:onnaire
items,
 thoughdul
considera:on
of
a
name,
and
 conscious
thinking
about
what
such
as
person
 would
be
like
 •  Unconscious:
 


>
Not
available
to
conscious
awareness,
no
maeer
 how
hard
we
try
 


>
Fast;
“split
second”
processing
 


>
“Intui:ve”
 


>
Suscep:ble
to
mistakes
as
a
func:on
of
rapid
 response
but
efficient
for
evolu:onary
adap:ve
tasks
 


>
Hard
to
change
but
can
be
done
with
use
of
 conscious,
cri:cal
thinking.
Think
of
it
as
the
mental‐ emo:onal
counterpart
to
physical
exercise.
 


>
Indirect
measures:
projec:ve
tests,
implicit
 associa:on
tests,
observa:on
of
one’s
own
 unexpected
behavior,
slips
of
the
tongue
 3
 8/15/11
 So
which
is
it:
Monroe
or
Einstein?
 •  Conscious
OR
unconscious?
 •  Mandy
Connell’s
“half‐breed”
comment,
leeers
to
 editor,
and
need
for
simple,
homogeneous
 explana:on
 •  Similarly,
we
are
ohen
pulled
to
find
the
simple,
 homogeneous
explana:on
to
avoid
the
 discomfort
of
simultaneously
holding
conflic2ng
 thoughts
in
mind

 •  What
to
do?
Recall
students
seeing
the
hybrid
 image
on
office
door…
 Cri:cal
Thinking
 •  “Cri:cal
thinking
is
the
art
of
analyzing
and
 evalua:ng
thinking
with
a
view
to
improving
 it”
(Paul
&
Elder,
2008,
p.2).
 •  Cri:cal
thinking
can
be
applied
to
enhancing
 self‐awareness
and
 •  Self‐awareness
is
a
core
component
of
cri:cal
 thinking
(Nickerson,
1988).
 Design
and
Goals
of
375
 •  Applica:on
of
CT
skills,
especially
“point
of
 view”
 •  CT
applied
to
en:re
range
of
375‐‐‐
from
 successfully
accessing
ar:cles
online
to
taking
 web‐based
personality
assessments
to
 summarizing
readings
to
taking
exams
to
 examining
one’s
own
personality
 4
 8/15/11
 CT
and
readings
 •  Review
Blue
Book
especially:
POV
 •  Two
POVs
of
the
“self”
 •  “How
can
I
tell
what
I
think
‘:l
I
see
what
I
 say?”
(E.
M.
Forster
quoted
in
Wilson,
2002)
 •  Clarifica:on
of
the
extent
and
quality
of
your
 knowledge
is
revealed
when
you
speak
or
 write;

 •  Recommenda:on:
discussion
and
wri:ng
 groups
 The
Challenge
 •  Enhancing
one’s
knowledge
of
the
 unconscious
aspects
of
one’s
personality
 •  Bringing
the
conscious
and
unconscious
into
 op:mal
coherence
 •  The
unconscious
is
not,
by
defini2on,
directly
 accessible
to
the
conscious
mind
 Prepare
for:
 •  August
30:
the
unconscious
conflict
model

 •  September
1:
the
adap:ve
unconscious
 •  Gather
examples
of
your
own
behavior
that
 has
“surprised”
you
and/or
feedback
you
 received
that
was
different
of
how
you
think
 of
yourself
 •  How
did
you
interpret
that
feedback?
 •  iClicker
class
ques-ons
begin
on
August
30th
 5
 ...
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