Lecture II Components in Wine Fall 10.printer friendly

Lecture II Components in Wine Fall 10.printer friendly -...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/31/2010 Wines Week II Please sit only in your assigned seat which was posted to blackboard. If you do not have an assigned seat please go out in in the foyer and see Beth Wilcox now. All seats are assigned so please do not take an empty seat as it belongs to someone! someone! Wine Fundamentals Factors affecting wine quality and price Wine Components How we Taste and Evaluate Wine Cell phones and electronic devices off and stowed stowed during class. READINGS INTRODUCED YOU TO: Types of Wine Winemaking Wine Tasting Grape Varieties Place Names Rating Wine Wine Service Glassware Wine Buying: Restaurants & Retail 1 8/31/2010 2 8/31/2010 FACTORS AFFECTING WINE QUALITY/PRICE $8 bottle of Chardonnay $20 bottle of Chardonnay $60 bottle of Chardonnay bottle of Chardonnay $600 bottle of Chardonnay 3 8/31/2010 VITICULTURAL Grape prices vary widely. ↓ 1. Grape variety 2. age of vine 3. density of planting 4. yield/acre 5. soil type, topography, microclimate (water) 6. land and labor costs Chardonnay $1,000 to $4,500/ton Chenin Blanc $400/ton Age of the vine affects yield, intensity and complexity 3rd year after planting yields the first grape crop – very basic juice 5 to 15 years the vines are prolific and begin to develop more complex flavors begin to develop more complex flavors 30 to 50 year old vines –yields decline but concentration of flavors continue. 50 to 100 year old vines have very low yields Yields: Factors Affecting Wine Quality/Price continued 1.5 Tons of Grapes/Acre = 100 Cases 3 Tons of Grapes/Acre = 200 Cases 6 Tons of Grapes/Acre = 400 Cases 9 Tons of Grapes/Acre = 600 Cases 4 8/31/2010 VITICULTURAL VINICULTURAL Factors Affecting Wine Quality ↓ ↓ Micro climate (rain, average daily temperature, number of day light hours, length of growing season) Site – soil, slope, elevation, drainage, orientation to sun Wine making (science and skill) Equipment and Facilities ($$$$$) ($$$$$) Production capacity and demand Marginal climates sometimes produce unique wines but vintage variation is significant. Wine Vocabulary to share the experience Components in Wine Where they come from. How they affect color, aroma, flavor, texture, body, storage life and our enjoyment of wines. What are legs? is the difference between a wine’s Bouquet and a wine’s Aroma? Why are some wines more astringent than Wh th others? What defects may be present in wine that make it acceptable to send back? What 5 8/31/2010 Wine components Water Alcohol Acids Sugar (sweetness) Anthocyanins Tannins Phenols Grape solids Sulfites Undesirable elements Wine components - affect the following attributes of wine Color Body Texture Aroma Bouquet Taste Aftertaste Storage life Components in wine 1. Alcohol At normal ranges for TABLE WINES 7-14.5% mouthit affects: body, mouth-feel and storage life. Wines too high in alcohol will taste “HOT” and give a burning sensation. 6 8/31/2010 Grape Grape sugar yields alcohol Alcohol Light bodied wines 7-10% 7 Medium bodied wines 10-12% 10 Full bodied 12-14.5% bodied 12 The amount of sugar (potential alcohol) depends on ripeness of grape at harvest Measured in Degrees Brix White FORTIFIED WINES have alcohol added in the form of brandy to boost their levels as high as 20% grapes generally 21 –24 Brix producing 11 to 13% alcohol if fermented dry. Red grapes harvested at 22 to 26 Brix producing 12 to 14% alcohol Components in wine Changing Component levels in the winery CHAPTALIZATION –the addition of sugar to the grape must to boost the natural sugar level and produce a slightly higher alcohol level in the slightly higher alcohol level in the finished finished wine. A common practice in cool growing regions. 2. Organic Acids Tartaric Malic Lactic Citric They contribute to crispness, structure and balance. 7 8/31/2010 Levels of acidity affect taste Low acidity – Flabby, flat taste Correct Correct acidity – Crisp, fresh, lively Cris taste Excess acidity – Green, harsh, sour taste Changing Component levels in the winery ACIDIFICATION – the addition of acid (usually Tartaric) to the finished wine. This Thi is sometimes done in hot climates where the natural acidity in the grapes is low. Changing Component levels in the winery High levels of Malic acid can be converted to a softer Lactic acid Through a secondary fermentation called MALOLACTIC Fermentation. This also produces by-products: byGlycerol contributes to (fatness) Diacetyl – buttery flavors Changing Component levels in the winery AMELIORATION – the addition of water and and sugar to the grape must to dilute acidity and boost the alcohol in the finished wine finished wine. A practice used in New York State’s cooler wine regions. 8 8/31/2010 Components in Wine Components in Wine 4.& 5. Residual Sugar 3. thin body Water Makes up 85% or more of table wines Dilutes all other components –this can be both beneficial and detrimental Compare samples 1, 2, 3 and 4 closely Wines with less than .4% sugar are technically dry. Residual sugar balances high acidity. Wines with high acidity can appear dry to the taste even though they have residual sugar. 6. Components in Wine –from the grape skin Anthocyanins – provide the color in red wine Tannins – provide structure and aging potential. potential. Can cause a mouth drying sensation and bitterness. RESVERETROL –antioxidant in wine believed to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels. 9 8/31/2010 How we judge wine Appearance: Brilliant Clear Dull Cloudy Precipitated #7. Smell/Taste Oxidized Maderized Color changing changing NOTE: several smell only samples will be passed around shortly How we judge wine--appearance wine--appearance White table wines range in color Pale yellow/green Light yellow (straw) Medium Medium yellow Light gold Medium gold Possible defect– Amber to brown color defect– How How we judge wines -- appearance The Color of Red Wine as it ages Young Immature – Purple Red Youthful – Ruby-Garnet Red Ruby Mature - Brick Red (rusty edges) Mature Red (rusty edges) Declining – Tawny (brown edges) Usually over the hill – Brown (muddy) Red wines lose color as they age 10 8/31/2010 How we judge wine Aroma– the fragrance associated with the grape variety Chardonnay –Green Apple VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS #8 Fruit smell and taste SAUVIGNON BLANC: Grassy, herbaceous bell pepper gun metal herbaceous, bell pepper, gun metal powder, powder, green olive, black pepper, grapefruit, citrus Sauvignon Blanc – Grassy, Herbal, Citrus #9 Smell/Taste Descriptors Anyone? How we judge wine Bouquet– Fragrances developed in the wine making and aging process Wood Wood influence –vanilla, toasty, smoky, coconut spice, butter, coconut Esters formed during fermentation Barrel and bottle aging 11 8/31/2010 #10 Smell only—Vegetable only— Swirl container and take a light sniff What Vegetable essence do you smell? #12 Smell Corked Sample TCA taint 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole 2,4,6 Musty, dank unpleasant smelling. dank unpleasant smelling #11A Smell (gently) Volatile Acidity Acetobacter produces Acetic Acid Acetobacter can also produce Acetobacter can also produce Ethyl Ethyl Acetate aromas which are similar to nail polish remover. YUM! Reasons to send the wine back! Defective Odors Cause Effect Sulfur Dioxide Stinging sensation (in (in the nasal passage) Hydrogen Sulfide Rotten eggs Mercaptans Essence of skunk and rotting cabbage 12 8/31/2010 Reasons to send the wine back! Fill level or Ullage as an indicator of condition Defective Odors Cause Effect Oxidized Bland (loss of flavor) Maderized Cooked-Sherry like with Cookednutty flavors Corked (TCA) Musty, moldy Reasons to send the wine back! Defective Odors Cause Dekkera/ Dekkera/Brettanomyces Effect Barnyard, Horsey, Mousey Mousey smells Sorbate Pediococcus Bubble gum smell Dirty socks How we judge wines Our sense of taste is really dependent on our sense of smell. Olfaction is where the action takes Olfaction is where the action takes place. place. You have the ability to identify hundreds hundreds of odors! 13 8/31/2010 We taste four things: Sweet; Sour; Salt; Bitter While our tastebuds are able to perceive all four tastes there is a progression of taste recognition on the palate as we evaluate recognition on the palate as we evaluate wine. wine. 1st Fruitiness (sweetness) 2nd Acidity (sourness) Bitterness if it exists is generally perceived last (at the finish) #13 How How we will distribute wine in class this term. Please pickup your wine glass kit. pickup your wine glass kit On the count of 3 please open it. Pouring your tasting sample How we judge wine Aroma– the fragrance associated with the grape variety Varietal Characteristics Chardonnay Chardonnay – apple, citrus, sometimes tropical -- pineapple 14 8/31/2010 How we judge wine Bouquet– Fragrances developed in the wine making and aging process With bottle age the bouquet changes Wood influence –vanilla, toasty, smoky, spice, Wood influence vanilla toasty smoky spice coconut butter, coconut The bouquet is influenced by Esters formed during fermentation and developed during barrel and bottle aging. Wine Tasting Stages Attack (Introduction) Evolution Finish Aftertaste Rating Wine Do You Like It? Yes or No 15 8/31/2010 $ Rating Wine How Much do you like it? I saw god when I drank it! Excellent Great OK Poor Terrible Swill Please repack your wine kit now. Please consolidate all your liquid into your spit cup. Th There are three ways to exit downstairs and th two two upstairs. EXIT PROCEDURES Please be prepared to discard all liquid to discard all liquid into into one container and all other paper all garbage into another container. 16 8/31/2010 PLEASE DO NOT THROW ANY PAPER OR PLASTIC INTO LIQUID CONTAINER INTO LIQUID CONTAINER Thank Thank you. 17 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course 334323 232 at Stanford.

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